Parenting | Homework Market Help

Parenting

Introduction

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Parenting broadly involves raising a child from childhood to adulthood. The process of parenting extends beyond the biological relationship to ensure that parents support and promote the social, intellectual, physical and emotional wellbeing and development of a child in the course of his or her development towards adulthood (Swinney, 2007). Parenting is usually viewed as the responsibility of the parents of the child, although the government and large society also have a parenting responsibility. Parental care for abandoned and orphaned children is mostly derived from nonparent blood relations such as adoption, foster care and orphanages. The goal of effective parenting is to ensure that the child is well equipped to comprehend his or her optimum potential as a human being. This ensures that the child is raised in a manner that increases the probability of individual capability as the child grows towards adulthood. It is essential to acknowledge that the child rearing method is a core determinant of the outcome of parenting in terms of development and behavior of kids (Bahr & Hoffmann, 2010). Income levels, socioeconomic status and wealth play an integral role in determining the parenting methods, with the lack of money being a dominant factor in influencing the selection of the parenting style.

Research studies have identified three primary styles of parenting deployed during early childhood development; they include permissive, authoritarian and authoritative parenting. Recent studies have expanded the parenting styles to include uninvolved parenting. Authoritarian parenting is mostly strict and rigid (Swinney, 2007). Parents using authoritarian parenting styles formulate a strict set of rules and prospects, which demand rigid obedience. Failure to observe the established rules usually leads to punishment in order to reinforce obedience. Authoritarian parenting is more prevalent in working class families that in miIDle class families. Studies have pointed out that children growing under an authoritarian parenting styles were less cheerful, extremely moody and exceedingly susceptible to stress. Further, these children tend to passively hostile. Authoritarian parents demonstrate low levels of parental responsiveness and high levels of parental expectations without explanation and reason (Fletcher et al, 2009). Children of authoritarian parents are failing in terms of social competence because they lack autonomy, implying that individual development is significantly impeded. However, some studies reveal that authoritarian parenting styles are beneficial in some cultures and ethnic backgrounds, such as Asian American families (Bahr & Hoffmann, 2010).

On the other hand, authoritative parenting styles embraces positive reinforcement and minimal reliance on punishment. This is because parents are well-informed of the capabilities and feelings of the child. Authoritative parents tend to maintain the development of autonomy within realistic limits. Authoritative parenting style is characterized by a give-and-take atmosphere; wherein control, support and parent-child communication are administered authoritatively. Research suggests that authoritative parenting style is the most effective and productive method of rearing children (Swinney, 2007). This is because there is parental acceptance and warmth during parent-child communication and relationships. Authoritative parents usually demonstrate satisfaction with the characteristics and abilities of their children and enjoy their company. Further, authoritative parents are usually sensitive to the needs of their children and their perspectives; as a result, they use positive reinforcement to ensure obedience. Positive reinforcement entails the use of fair and firm disciplinary actions and usually judges their children depending on their progress and competence. Authoritative parenting style is also the productive because parents make use of age-suitable expectations concerning their behavior. In aIDition, authoritarian parenting style is extremely responsive and sensitive to the cues deriving from the behavior of their children (Bahr & Hoffmann, 2010).

Permissive parenting style is prevalent in miIDle class families, wherein a significant value is placed on freedom and autonomy of the children. Permissive parents usually rely on explanation and reasoning to administer their parenting responsibilities. There is absent or limited used of punishment and stringent rules, which implies that children face minimal external constraints. Children of permissive parents demonstrate considerable levels of happiness, self-control and self-reliance because of the absence of an established structure at home. Permissive parents have no expectations in terms of how their children behavior, which increases the likelihood of the child becoming a “spoiled brat” depending on the behavior of the child (Swinney, 2007). Research reveals that children raised in permissive families are extremely impulsive and are likely to engage in misconduct and drug use when they progress towards adolescence. This is because children do not become skilled at controlling their individual behavior. However, they demonstrate high levels of emotional security, independence and are eager to acknowledge defeat and learn. This is because they mature rapidly and can live independently without the help of another person. A recent study by Bahr and Hoffman (2010) reported a positive relationship between permissive parenting and increase underage drinking. The study also suggested that permissive parenting increases the likelihood of the child developing risky behaviors and misconduct such as drug use (Bahr & Hoffmann, 2010).

Uninvolved parenting style entails physical and emotional absence of parents when the child is growing up. This parenting style is neglectful, wherein there is the lack of parental involvement in the child’s life, and demonstrate low levels of warmth and control. In aIDition, uninvolved parenting entails low responsiveness and sensitiveness of children’s needs because parents are undemanding, disengaged and fails to establish limits for their children. Nonetheless, neglectful parents offer basic needs, but fail to provide emotional support. Some of the factors causing neglectful parenting consist of parent’s prioritizing themselves, financial stress, and absence of support and aIDictive behaviors among parents. Children growing under neglectful parenting tend to feel that other facets of their parent’s life are extremely valuable than them. The parent-child relationship is mostly contradictory with children demonstrating high levels of emotional withdrawal from social circumstances. Neglectful parenting also increases the likelihood of children developing truant and delinquent behavior. Studies have also reported that children growing under neglectful parenting score poorly in term of academic achievement, problem behavior, psychosocial development and internalized distress; the scores were relatively higher for children having authoritative parents (Swinney, 2007).

The styles of parenting are only a small portion of the facets that constitute effective parenting. It is essential to acknowledge that parenting requires considerable skill, patience and constant work in order to facilitate development and growth from childhood to adulthood. There is a considerable body of research that explores the aspects of productive parenting, with most studies citing honest communication and discussions between parents and children. Open parent-child communication entails the parent being aware of their child’s learning, their needs and how growth changes are affecting. This is helpful in ensuring that parents are sensitive and proactive towards the needs of their children. It is also imperative for parents to take a keen interest on the educational needs of their children and participate actively in their early development. It is also imperative to acknowledge that parenting does not end when come to a halt when the child turns eighteen; rather, it extends to adulthood. There is the need for parental support beyond adolescence and continues towards late adulthood. The fundamental argument is that parenting is a lifetime process (Fletcher et al., 2009).

In conclusion, it is apparent the authoritative parenting is the most effective and productive form of parenting, which aims at ensuring that children achieve their maximum potential as human beings. Authoritative parenting increases the likelihood that the child will grow to be the most capable individual at adulthood. Therefore, effective parenting should strive to achieve emotional development through ensuring that the child feels worthy and capable. Parenting should also enhance intellectual development. Overall, productive and effective parenting should ensure that the child is independent, socially responsible, self-confident, and demonstrate high self-esteem and competency in academic and social pursuits.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bahr, S. J., & Hoffmann, J. P. (2010). Parenting style, religiosity, peers, and adolescent heavy   drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (71), 539-543.

Fletcher, A. C., Walls, J. K., Cook, E. C., Madison, K. J., & Bridges, T. H. (2009). Parenting style as a moderator of associations between maternal disciplinary strategies and child   well-being. Journal of Family Issues , 29 (12), 1724–1744.

Swinney, M. (2007). Adolescents’ perceptions of parenting styles in social context among low        income African Americans. New York: ProQuest.

 

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