Bullying In Schools | Homework Market Help

Abstract

Students deal with different forms of bullying in school that have to be aIDressed, to help create an atmosphere that is conducive for effective learning. The aim of this study was to examine the definitions and perceptions of students regarding bullying incidents they experienced in school, whether they participated in the role of bullies, victims, or witnesses. From the in-depth interviews conducted on 41 participants, using the comparative analysis method, a number of themes emerged, including causes of bullying, such as size, weight, clothing, and placement in special education. Qualitative research design was also used wherein data gathered from the interviews were used in the qualitative data analysis. The relationship between clothing and bullying was outlined by several participants, highlighting issues, such as brand name, styles, and the stores where they were purchased. The findings pointed out that, students with higher body weight are less likely to be bullied compared to students with relatively less body weight; students with higher height are less likely to be bullied compared to students with relatively less height; there is no relationship between bullying and wearing trendy clothes; and that there is no relationship between bullying and placement in special education. In aIDition, evidence from this study has pointed out that teacher vigilance reduces the prevalence of bullying.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Introduction

Education today is considered to be a basic necessity to all children. The local, state, and federal governments, together with the school systems, are charged with the main responsibility of ensuring education is accessible to all children. Educational practitioners, including school administrators, headmasters and teachers, are required to establish a safe and more comfortable atmosphere for the students. In aIDition, educational policies related to the teachers’ capacity and curriculum development in accomplishing learning and teaching processes also demand that teachers establish good behavior and character among the students in schools. All together, the responsibility of the parents in controlling the behavior of the students while at home is very important. However, according to the research, there is a significant population of the children that do not obtain full education; those that avoid school, attend but do not take part in learning, those that cannot learn as a result of various factors that drift their attention from normal class lessons, and those whose concentration and sense of security are hampered by other students (Aronson, 2000; Bonilla, 2000; Coggeshall & Kingery, 2001). Students today are encountering various impediments to their education, and as Salmon et al. (1998) state, bullying is one of the significant challenges that schools must aIDress. A study conducted by Bosworth et al. (1999) reported that about 33% of the miIDle school students highlighted that they felt unsafe in school due to bullying and could not report about it. The same study established that students did not report about such behaviors to the relevant authorities for various reasons, for instance, students felt that their school administrators and teachers would do nothing about it.

The implications of bullying in schools run deep into our societies, considering the fact that its effects go beyond incidents encountered at an individual level. This is depicted by the increasing interest on the part of the government to support studies and surveys regarding bullying in schools, in an attempt to acquire more information for aIDressing this obstacle (Coggeshall & Kingery, 2001). However, it is important to note that bullying is considered as a practice, which is especially rampant among the youth, reeking destruction on the educational establishment. Educational practitioners have become more interested in bullies as they create a sense of fear within other students, and the entire school environment that is unfavorable to the sense of safety and comfort required for effective and good learning to take place. Howell (1997) states, that bullying in schools can also result in school-related victimizations. In aIDition, the recent global studies indicate that bullying is a symptom of a wider context of violence. However, it is significant to mention that success in any learning atmosphere is not guaranteed by the nonexistence of bullying, but successful learning settings can be improved when such disruptions are eradicated (Bosworth et al., 1999). It is the main reason as to why bullying within the education system should be understood and tackled. Indeed, schools should be viewed as safe settings where all students are offered equal learning opportunities. It has been reported that between 80% and 90% of the preadolescents and the adolescents have to cope with constant physical and psychological harassment, depicted as bullying, at some points during the educational process (Oliver et al., 1994). According to Bosworth et al. (1994), behavioral problems such as bullying among the adolescents are viewed as a part of a syndrome. This constant culture of bullying has to be eradicated to ensure effective learning and safety of the students. To aIDress this issue, this research seeks to investigate bullying in schools, looking at the students’ perceptions after the experience, whether they were the bully, the bullied, or a witness.

Purpose of the Study

Bullying is becoming a global problem and can take place in any school. A survey conducted by the United States Department of Justice (2003) regarding the indicators of school crime and safety reported that both females and males between the ages of 12 and 18 were at a higher risk of being bullied than any other age group, with the proportion of females being 7%, while that of males being 9%. However, it is worth noting that a previous survey that had been conducted in 1999 indicated no difference between the females and males as rates for both were 5%. A study conducted by Druck and Kaplowitz (2005) documented that 60% of students aged between 12 and 17 had observed a student bullying another one every day. Bullying may affect school attendance as students consider school as an unsafe place, thus negatively affecting their ability to learn. Furthermore, bullying is toxic to an atmosphere favorable for effective learning. Regardless of whether it is psychological or physical harassment, or a consequence of the harassment envisaged in poor attendance as a result of fear for safety, bullying is a problem that needs to be aIDressed. According to Maslow’s theory of needs, it is fundamental that the basic needs are satisfied first before the higher needs, like critical thinking and learning are attained.  Therefore, it is important to ensure the safety and security of the students at school. Limited formal research regarding bullying in schools has been documented globally, which makes it difficult to identify the real cause of bullying and appropriate measures that could be implemented to aIDress it. This study, therefore, seeks to examine perceptions and definitions of bullying from the students’ point of view, as experienced in school and to explore their understandings of how they manage to cope with experience, whether they were in the role of a victim, witness, or bully.

 

Theoretical Framework: Anomie

The concept of bullying has to be placed within a theoretical framework in order to generate a deeper understanding and to provide the opportunity for a more elaborate conceptualization of the concept, its likely origin, and lines of inquiry. Whereas social learning theories, functionalism, and biological theories offer theoretical frameworks that can offer some explanations regarding bullying. Durkheim’s anomie offers an explanation that shifts focus from a single person to the society. Durkheim (1979) considers that the society impacts significantly the actions of an individual, as induced by the norms, traditions, and rules found within it. The following statement provides the basis of Durkheim’s work. In one of his writings, Suicide, Durkheim, (1979) defines anomic suicide as one that is generated from human’s activity without the regulations and the enduring suffering that happens due to the lack of regulations. In this case, regulation is viewed as positive force that is moral since the society deems it as being desirable. Durkheim’s theory also considers the society as the sole authority that human beings will respect, and it is the single moral power greater than an individual, which he accepts (Durkheim, 1979). Consequently, the lack of regulations within the society implies that the society has no capacity to control individuals. From the anomic perspective; this implies that the society no longer offers the restrictions that bar people from committing suicide. Shoemaker (2000) describes anomie as the inconsistencies between the conditions within the society and the individual opportunities for productivity, fulfillment, and growth. Marshall (1994) looks at this as an absence, confusion, conflict, or breakdown in the societal norms. Anomie can offer an understanding regarding why students engage in bullying. This gives an explanation as to why there are increases in the probability of antisocial behavior among the students (Arllen et al., 1994).A number of arguments have been brought forward claiming that there exists no anomie in schools due to the standardized tests trend, accountability, and zero tolerance policies. However, it should be noted that such changes could have been generated from anomie.  Furthermore, it is worth noting that despite the fact that there has been a move towards accountability within the education systems, anomie may still be evident.

Shoemaker (2000) highlights that one of the hypotheses concerning anomie is that the institutions and structure of society are supposed to exist in disorganization or disarray. Despite the fact that this disorganization or disarray may not be happening currently in the highly regulated and accountable school systems, it may be happening within the society. An example of anomie within the school could be lack of clarity regarding rules, consequences, and expectations, which, according to Morrison and Skiba (2001), increase antisocial behavior. In aIDition, it has also been reported that minimizing the students’ feelings of isolation and enhancing feelings of association to the school reduce the acceptance of and possibility for violence (Coghlan, 2000). Therefore, when there is a connection to the society or a larger institution, there is normlessness or less anomie, which means that regulations are established to direct the actions of the individuals within the society. Attaining an understanding regarding when and where there is anomie and how this is perceived by the students may help in determining when and where bullying takes place in schools.

Significance of the Study

The incidents of bullying in schools as reported by the media have become a major issue of concern to the educational practitioners. This concern has raised interest among researchers to carry out related studies in recent years, in an aim to aIDress this ever increasing issue. As documented by various studies conducted in different countries, bullying in schools has become common problem in almost all schools around the world.

The significant goal of this research is to enlighten teachers and give some advice on how to help the bullying issue in schools. It is expected that teachers who have a greater understanding of bullying in schools have the capacity to minimize these incidents and help create safer learning atmospheres for their students. Moreover, offering students with a safe learning environment may improve academic attainment and increase attendance. The expansion of an understanding regarding bullying in school, along with its consequences on the students, may be partly attained by exploring the perceptions of the students regarding bullying, together with their views concerning the roles of the administrators and teachers in these events.

Developing the understanding of the perceptions of students regarding bullying may generate insights that will sustain efforts put by the schools that are aimed at minimizing bullying. These insights and perceptions acquired from the students could facilitate the creation of learning atmospheres that enclose the students in a sense of comfort and security as well as offer them a substitute to the norm-less society that has currently been established to which some students may fall prey. By developing the understanding of the views of the students and how they define bullying, school administrators and teachers could gain a deeper comprehension of the intricate dynamics entangled in the concept of bullying. This understanding will also help school administrators and teachers in tackling with the numerous forms of bullying that occur in school. The manner in which students define bullying may totally differ from the way students define it, thus an enlightened, refreshed, and revised understanding on the side of the teachers may help in tackling this problem that has been a main concern of the parents, educators, and media. Studies report that some people view bullying as a rite of passage, whereas the others consider it as some sort of torment. Therefore, it is important that the differing perspectives are understood if significant change as far as bullying is to take place. To effectively tackle and aIDress this issue, it is very important that the issue be understood and defined similarly by all parties. Examining the perceptions of the students will create an opportunity for the voices of the students, who are the main victims in this case, to be heard. In his publication, OID Girl Out, Simmons (2002) highlights the value of adopting a listening guide rather than an interview guide, while interviewing girls regarding their bullying experiences as a listening guide enables the researcher to understand the situation from the perspective if the girls who are being interviewed. Simmons used this approach to allow the voices of the girls to be heard, in an aim to generate more insight into their feelings, desires, and experiences, and enable them recover knowledge concerning them. Haselswerdt and Lenhardt (2003) in their study suggested that if time is taken to listen to and try to understand what students say and let them feel respected and valued that their views will be considered in running the school, they are more probable to have the feeling of being connected to a community that is caring. It is, therefore, important to listen to the perspectives of the students regarding bullying in order to acquire a deeper understanding of bullying from the view of those whose lives are daily impacted.

Research Questions

The main aim of this study is to examine the perceptions of the college students regarding bullying in school and explore the understanding of the students about how they have managed to deal with the experience. This research attempts to answer several questions, and the core questions of the dissertation are:

  • What perceptions do college students have concerning bullying, based on their past experiences as a bully, victim, or witness?
  • What are their definitions of the concept “bullying”?

Hypotheses

  • Hypothesis 1:  It is hypothesized that individuals who have been bullied will have higher body weight, shorter height, less trendy clothes, and a special education disability in comparison to individuals who have not been bullied.
  • Hypothesis 2:  It is also hypothesized that teachers who are vigilant about preventing bullying have fewer incidents of bullying in their schools in comparison to teachers who are passive about this epidemic.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Introduction

This chapter reviews the documented literature regarding school bullying. However, most of the scholarly literature related to bullying does not consider bullying as a solitary topic, but it is commonly attached with violence. Despite the fact that these subjects are always considered to be broad in scope and can be examined separately, they will have to be aIDressed simultaneously in some cases. Therefore, when violence and bullying are aIDressed mutually in this chapter, it is due to the fact that scholarly articles have outlined the two aspects as being closely related. Howell (1997) states that there exists a connection between violence and bullying in schools. This is so considering the cases of the reported school shootings, whereby the main perpetrators have been acknowledged as being sufferers of bullying (Aronson, 2000). There is a common hypothesis within the literature claiming that the experiences of being victims of bullying at times result in the acts of violence as a form of reprisal (Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 2005).

To begin with, a discussion of the meaning of bullying is provided in order to highlight the key descriptors of the study. A review of literature examining the possible theoretical explanations regarding school bullying will also be discussed. After the theoretical explanations provided, the review will examine three main components regarding bullying, which include the prevalence of bullying in schools, incidents of bullying in schools, and measures that could be adopted to help prevent school bullying.

Definition of Bullying

Bullying is understood by many to be a form of behavior that could be easily acknowledged when people experience it. It is necessary to note that bullying can be experienced by any individual, regardless of the age, and can take place at any place, for instance, workplace, school, or even at home. So far, defining bullying has been a challenge as it is associated with both a wide range of behavior that constitutes bullying, as well as the characteristics of bullying behavior (Montgomery, 1994). Conversely, most of the definitions commonly applied were adopted by Olweus (1991) and Erling (1989). According to Erling (1989), bullying is defined as long standing violence, psychological or physical, carried out by a group of the individuals directed against an individual who has no ability defend himself/herself. Based on the same thoughts, Olweus (1991) considers bullying as repeated, negative acts over time, such as kicking, locking inside a room, hitting, threatening, teasing, and saying unpleasant as well as nasty things.

According to Rigby (2005), bullying is viewed as a systematic exploitation of power within interpersonal associations. This implies that bullying is when an individual is harassed by time or an individual that has more power in terms of either social standing or physical strength. The misuse of power is not limited to certain authority or managerial positions, but most people have the capacity to use power to rule over somebody. This, therefore, means that there exist imbalances in psychological and physical strength between a victim and a bully (Olweus & Solberg, 1998). Concerning the detection of bullying, a study conducted by Olweus and Solberg (1998) highlights some common characteristics that could be used to identify bullying behavior. The same study states that bullying is often recognized when an individual or a group of people continually speak or do unpleasant and painful things to a person who cannot defend himself / herself. When talking of the terms unpleasant and painful, Olweus and Solberg (1998) refer them as indirect and direct bullying. They claim that the unpleasantness and pain may occur as a result of direct bullying, such as kicking, sneering and offensive threat or comments, hitting, and insults, whereas indirect bullying, though painful just as direct bullying, is the experience of being publicly excluded or isolated from the others (Olweus & Solberg, 1998). From this definition, there is a reasonable presupposition that there is a psychological element in almost all forms of bullying (Rigby, 2005).

Bullying in Schools

The increasing cases of bullying in schools today has captured worldwide attention among school authorities, the media, parents, and the researchers who are concerned about the safety and wellbeing of the students (Moon et al., 2008). School bullying is a universal problem that poses negative consequences for the entire school atmosphere, and for the students’ right to learn in a safe setting without having to fear. This widespread problem is the most less-reported safety predicament within schools. Until lately, most of the research studies regarding bullying were basically concerned with bullying in schools; though, other perspectives of bullying have also been researched widely. This is because bullying becomes a daily and common occurrence among students during school age. According to Sampson (2002), bullying most often occurs during elementary school and reduces during miIDle school, but increases in high school. Various studies have been conducted concerning the phenomenon of school bullying. The first research regarding this issue was carried out by Olweus (1993), a Scandinavian researcher, who performed a systematic study in Swedish and Norwegian schools and established that a significant population of the students experienced bullying in school. The same study found out that about 7% of the students in the sample took part in bullying, and between 15% and 5% of the students drawn from different grades reported being victims of bullying. This also implies that about one out of every seven students is engaged in bullying activities with the level or regularity, either as a victim or a bully (Olweus, 1993). Studies related to school bullying have also been carried out in various nations such as Canada, South Korea, Austria, Japan, United States, Italy, England, and China, and have reported comparable or even higher percentage regarding the samples of students engaged in bulling activities (Olweus& Solberg, 1998; Moon et al., 2008). Basing on such studies, it can be seen that school bullying has become a worldwide phenomenon. Despite the fact that most of the formal research regarding school bullying has been highly discussed in the countries where the research has been conducted, it is important to note that the problems associated with school bullying have been reported and discussed anywhere there exists a formal schooling setting. Most of the findings regarding this phenomenon indicate that bullying consists of direct behaviors including, threatening, stealing, taunting, hitting, and taunting that are instigated by other students against the victim. To aID on to the direct attacks, bullying can also be experienced indirectly, for instance, making a student to be isolated socially through deliberate exclusion (Olweus & Solberg, 1998). However, despite the fact that bullying can be either direct or indirect forms, it is worth noting that the main component of bullying is that the psychological or physical coercion happens over and over again to generate a continuous pattern of abuse and harassment (Rigby, 2005). To allow bullying to go on in schools without employing any intervention will most likely generate serious risks to students and enhance this phenomenon, which is considered to have adverse impacts on academic performance and life of the students.

Theoretical Perspectives Regarding School Bullying

Some studies have been conducted to establish theories examining the most likely causes that lead to bullying behavior. However, it is important to note that theories are often developed to help generate explanations regarding the world we live in. Therefore, if bullying is considered to be a barrier to effective learning, explanations are required to help generate a deeper understanding regarding this phenomenon. Almost all of the theories that have directly aIDressed the issue of school bullying link violence and bullying together; therefore, the two topics have been examined together in this study. However, it is worth highlighting that the existing literature regarding school bullying and violence offers very limited theoretical explanations regarding these phenomena. This is why more focus has been directed towards theories of delinquency. School violence and school bullying are all treated as delinquent acts; hence, it is reasonable that delinquency theories are applied in exploring the two topics from a theoretical perspective. Apparently, taking into account the fact that theories have to be drawn from the field of juvenile delinquency since more and more focus is being directed towards school violence and bullying, it is necessary to mention that there is a need to come up with theories, to help explore these phenomena, along with their intricacies in the future. A number of theories will be explored in this study: biological theories, functionalism, social disorganization theory, social learning theory, and anomie.

Biological Theories

In his discussion regarding conduct disorders, Kauffman (2001) highlights that genetic, as well as other biological factors contribute to the most serious incidents of conduct disorder. However, the recognition of a biological ground in milder cases appears to be less clear, and the context also contributes to the problem (Kauffman, 2001). The two most commonly sought after biological theories include inheritance theory and somatotype theory. Empirical findings suggest that somatotypes or body types can be linked to an individual’s behavior and character (Shoemaker, 2000). The main presupposition is that the general body shape is correlated with the behaviors and character that are associated to delinquency (Shoemaker, 2000). Compared to the inheritance theory, this explanation is considered more specific, as inheritance theory argues that delinquency is a behavior that is inherited, and presupposes that an individual’s behavior is contingent on the factors present at birth, which are biologically transmitted from the parents. To clarify this assumption, Shoemaker (2000) looked at the research that shows some correlation between genetics and both antisocial behavior and criminal activity. This researcher stresses that biological theorists have not yet established an explicit biological explanation regarding the factors that are inherited to create delinquency or crime. However, despite the fact that it can be possible to give explanations of some specific behaviors basing on the biological perspective, it is worth highlighting that it is not easy to do so on bullying, considering the fact that the bullies are only involved in this activity, which may not be described as delinquent behavior. Basically, biological theories highlight a genetic factor to delinquency, but due to the fact that bullying can be a restricted incident, and can be effected by various types of people, hence this justification falls flat.

Functionalism

The theory of functionalism is a rational choice for investigating school bullying, as it tries to give explanations regarding the perceptions of students on bullying in schools. Looking at his explanation of functionalism, Merton (1968) documents that social activities people are involved in, along with the cultural items possessed have a function or reason for the social society. Merton notes that the items or activities accomplish a sociological function and are indispensable. It is possible to argue that school bullying and violence accomplish psychological functions, for instance, support in the growth of coping skills on the victims’ part, and skills to influence the bullies. It is worth noting that these cannot be considered to be sociological functions, the core of functionalism theory. This implies that the approaches, through which the development of coping skills on the part of the victims and influencing skills of the bullies are attained, are not functional for the cultural or social system. Bullying and violence within schools are a burden to the societies’ financial resources and impact on the establishment of the kind of unity necessary for creating a sense of community. It is significant to highlight that school bullying and violence are dispensable. Despite the fact that they offer a means through which some people are able to acquire status over the others in the society, it is often attained through intimidation. The power attained through intimidation is narrow in duration and scope; thus, activities that help people attain this power, for instance, bullying, are dispensable. There are other effective approaches that can be employed to attain power in the society. The theory of functionalism explains why incidents take place in the society, such that the given incidents contain specific purposes that are considered valuable in the society. Therefore, as school violence and bullying generate no good social value, it can be deduced that functionalism is not very practical as an explanation; though, it can be applied as a functional gauge of uncertainty and disorganization.

Social Disorganization Theory

The main postulation of the social disorganization theory is that a collapse in the institutional controls based at the community level of the society results in delinquency (Shoemaker, 2000). People living in a society that is in a status of disorganization and find themselves in confusion, are not disoriented personally, but are behaving in response to the disorganization within their surrounding (Shoemaker, 2000). Whereas such people may exist in harmony with their surrounding under ordinary conditions, a drastic alteration of the systems will throw them into a state of disorganization as they lack the knowledge on how to interpret the societies’ new shape.

Social Learning Theory

This theory is grounded on the main presupposition that three major factors control an individual’s behavior: the cognitive/affective traits, the behavior, and the environment (Kauffman, 2001). An individual’s ability whether or not to portray aggressive behavior is determined by the reciprocal effects of the three main factors that have been highlighted, along with the social history of the individual (Kauffman, 2001). This theory claims that aggressive behavior is acquired through the direct effects of both aggressive and non-aggressive actions and through examination of aggression, together with its impacts (Kauffman, 2001). Social learning theory highlights that people discover particular aggressive behaviors by observing other people who form the behavior. For instance, when young people observe high rank individuals indulge in aggressive activities, especially when there are evident returns for such activities, they are most likely to take part in similar activities. There is also a high likelihood for young people to take part in aggressive behavior when they do not observe their models getting negative results, as a return for indulging in activities related to such behaviors. Although, social learning theory contains significant implications to understanding aggression, it, however, fails to adequately deal with some of the intricate issues regarding school bullying and violence. First, when young people notice that a peer is not reprimanded for indulging in the activities related to bullying, basing on the social learning theory, it is expected that many young people will bully the others who are considered weaker than themselves. This means that if a witness observes a student bullying another student, and no punishment is given to the bully, there is a high likelihood that the witness will turn into bullying, as well. Apparently, some students bully while the others do not, but the disparity may be partly explained by the fact aspect that some students observe more bullying modeled with no negative consequences compared to the others. Second, it is important to note that social learning depends on the belief that actions of other individ

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