BETHEL Unit 3 Stress Management Coincides With Coping With Change Part I Part 3 of the Read section, coincides with coping with change. Reflect on this co

BETHEL Unit 3 Stress Management Coincides With Coping With Change Part I

Part 3 of the Read section, coincides with coping with change. Reflect on this concept as you watch the video “Who moved my cheese”.

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Part II

In the video, what does the maze and cheese represent?
Identify both the cheese and the maze in your own life. Then consider what happens if someone moved your cheese. Imagine the ways you might have to cope with the changes. In your reflecting, establish an argument discussing why it is hard for most of us to accept change?

Respond to this question with a minimum of 350 words and 2 scholarly sources from the Library in addition to citing the uploaded course textbook Manning, G., Curtis, K., McMillen, S., and Attenweiler, B. (2011). Stress living & working in a changing world.

Additional reading requirements of 2 scholarly sources can be found at http://bethelu.libguides.com/coursematerials, please reference from this site if used. Please select course number/name that matches this course. MOD2620_96N Part Three
S
A the Life Span
Stress Across
U
N
D
E
6. Coping R
with Change
S
7. Lives in Progress
S
8. The Meaning
R of Wellness
.
,
There are only two or three human stories, and
G they go on repeating themselves as fiercely as
if they never happened before.—Willa Cather
A
R
R
In Part Three you will learn:
ƒƒ myths, realities, and strategies for dealing
Y with change;
ƒƒ sources of stress at each stage of life;
2
ƒƒ the meaning and dimensions of wellness.
0
9
What is the “Take Away” Point? 0
View change as a challenge and master the developmental tasks of adulthood.
T
S
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
Chapter Six
Coping with Change
Change in modern times
S
Nearly twenty-five hundred years ago, the Greek
A philosopher Heraclitus noted that one can
never cross the same river twice. In other words, change is a constant in life. In Managing at
U
the Speed of Change, Daryl Conner writes that the volume, speed, and complexity of change
Nlives, we are constantly having to adjust to famare increasing in modern times. In our personal
ily changes, job changes, and health changes.D
In society at large, we face escalating changes in
government, education, religious, and other institutions.1
E
People are acutely aware of change in their lives
R and many have difficulty adjusting. Among
the causes of change are a growing worldwide population, faster communication and access to
S
information, increasing technological advancements, and breakdown of traditional rules and
social order. In dealing with change, Conner identifies three D’s to avoid:
S they are saying.”
ƒƒ Denial of reality: “They don’t mean what
Rbelieve it to be.”
ƒƒ Distortion of facts: “Truth is what you
.
ƒƒ Delusion of selves: “It could never happen
here.”2
, change successfully requires (1) a focused viInstead of these responses to change, managing
sion, (2) guiding values, (3) personal incentives, (4) supporting resources, (5) sound judgment,
and (6) an action plan. See Figure 6.1.
Vision
103
>
G
A for Successful Change3
Figure 6.1 Building Blocks
R
R
Y
Action
Values
>
Incentives
>
Resources
>
Judgment
>
>
Successful
Change
Values
>
Incentives
>
Resources
2
>
Judgment
> Action Plan >
Confusion
Incentives
>
Resources
>
Judgment
> Action Plan >
Anxiety
>
Judgment
> Action Plan >
Drift
Judgment
> Action Plan > Frustration
0
9
Resources
0
T
S
Vision
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Resources
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Resources
>
Plan
Action Plan >
Judgment
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
>
Mistakes
False Starts
Without a vision or clear goals, there is confusion. Without values, there are no standards
of right and wrong, and anxiety results. Without incentives, there is lack of energy and the
individual drifts as the pawn of external forces. Without resources, there is lack of progress
and frustration is experienced. Without judgment, poor choices are made and mistakes occur.
Without an action plan and strategy for change, there are false starts.
In dealing with personal change, use this model and ask:
1. Do I have a clear, compelling vision; do I have a purpose in life with meaningful goals
to achieve?
S
2. Do I have values and principles that anchor
and guide me?
A
3. Do I have incentives and motivation U
to take responsibility for my own destiny?
N my goals?
4. What resources can I garner to achieve
D
5. Do I balance feelings with logic and let reason guide so that my judgments are sound?
E
6. What plan of action should I follow; what steps should I take for successful change?
R
In all walks and periods of life, we will be faced with the challenge of change. To the building
S
blocks of vision, values, incentives, resources, judgment, and an action plan, add two essential
elements: the will to change and personal courage. In the final analysis, the ability to change
is less a function of capacity and more a function
S of determination and courage to live by one’s
convictions even in the face of adversity.
R
.
Change in the workplace
Generally, the biggest cause of stress in the workplace
is change—change of people, change of
,
products, change of place, change of pace. In America today, the average employee changes jobs
seven times, a radical shift from a generation ago, when lifetime service was commonplace.4
G
A case in point
A changes. The first was to work as a
Over the years, I have had six occupational
young professional in labor relations.RPrior to this, I knew school, sports, and
part-time jobs. To say the adjustmentR
was a challenge is an understatement.
Y floor, the second change was to enter
After four learning years on a factory
the world of consulting. I did this reluctantly because (1) I didn’t think I knew
anything of special importance, and (2) I had a family to support and consult2
ing sounded shaky to me. Fascinating assignments and excellent colleagues
0
made the difference.
9
The third change was the shift from business to the university. The fact that I
0 the desire to teach and the support of
was new to teaching was overcome by
caring leaders.
T
S
The fourth change was a shift from teaching
to administration. I was pleased
with the opportunity, but truly challenged to develop the attitude and skills of
a coordinator versus individual practitioner.
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
The fifth shift was back into the classroom, which I saw as a step up. I thought
administration was good, but I thought teaching was great.
The sixth shift required going back to school and studying humanistic psychology, in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. This proved to be just
what the doctor ordered in terms of personal growth and satisfaction. What is
next, I’m not sure. But then, who is? — Author’s file notes (G. M.)
Change is the label under which we put all of the things that we have to do differently in the
future. In general, people dislike change. It makes a blank space of uncertainty between what
S
is and what might be.
A
U
Structure. Change in structure is often
N severely resisted by people. Mergers, acquisitions, right-sizing, and re-engineeringDactivities typically involve tremendous change.
Tasks. Changes in the environment, including
products and processes, require changes
E
in tasks. Driving forces include customer needs, productivity improvement, and qualR
ity initiatives.
S
The four major types of change in the workplace are:5
1.
2.
3. Technology. Innovations in this area have dramatically increased the rate of change.
No industry, trade, or profession is immune to change caused by technological
S
advancements.
4. People. Change in any of the aboveR
variables can result in changing relationships—
change in managers, employees, coworkers,
and customers— and change within a
.
person, such as change in knowledge,, attitude, and skills.
A particularly stressful change in the American workplace is the downsizing and reorganization
activities resulting from re-engineering business, reinventing government, and other manageG
ment initiatives. Employees who are victims of job loss, particularly in their middle years, face
A Employees who remain with an organization
enormous economic, social, and personal stress.
often experience the “survivor syndrome.” They
R are afraid they will be part of the next round
of cuts, and they feel sadness and guilt over their coworkers’ fate. In addition, they often have
R
more work to do personally if production demands do not reflect the reduced number of people
Y
to do the job.
Many lessons have been learned from studying the downsizing of organizations, but four stand
2 to change in order to preserve superordinate
out: (1) People need to be flexible and willing
values and goals. (2) People need a positive attitude
toward lifelong learning to remain viable
0
in the workplace. (3) Career education is a survival
skill, since people must learn to manage
9
their own careers. (4) Change can be expensive. Consider that if one hundred employees with
0 a six-month change or transition resulting in
an average annual salary of $24,000 go through
6
two hours of distraction per day, the cost is $276,000.
T
S
Coping with change taxes the resources of everyone
involved—managers, nonmanagers, and
customers—especially if the change is sudden or disagreeable. Some change is unavoidable,
and change often results in worthwhile benefits, but too often the reverse is true, as the following example shows:
105
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
One company had hardware and software products that were the biggest sellers in its particular market. Then it decided to re-engineer—because someone
got the idea that re-engineering was a good thing to do. In the process, it cut
its customer-service department by half. When the company completed its
change effort six months later, it discovered it didn’t have any customers left.
It took both its eyes off the ball by cutting back on customer service and ignoring its business so that it could follow the newest business craze. The company
is now in Chapter 11.7
How prevalent is change in the workplace? ASrecent study found that 42 percent of the North
American companies surveyed engaged in eleven or more change initiatives in a five-year
A
period. In essence, the report describes a “change frenzy” that is creating cynical, demoralized
employees and failing to produce meaningfulUimprovements. The result is front-line workers
who are overstressed by all of the changes created
by managers frantically searching for the
N
next formula for success. Consider the following letter from an apologetic and enlightened
D
management.8
E
R
For the last decade, we have been trying
S to change our organization. Because
Dear Employees:
we are frightened for our economic future, we kept looking for—and finding— another program du jour. We’ve dragged you through quality circles, exS
cellence, total-quality management, self-directed
work teams, re-engineering,
and God knows what else. DesperateR
to find some way to improve our profitability, we switched from change to .change almost as fast as we could read
about them in business magazines.
,
All of this bounding from one panacea to the next gave birth to rampant bandwagonism. We forgot to consider each change carefully, implement it thoughtfully, and wait patiently for results. G
Instead, we just kept on changing while
A
you progressed from skepticism to cynicism
to downright intransigence because you realized that all of these changes
were
just creating the illusion of
R
movement toward some ill-defined goal.
R
Now we’ve got a lot of burned-out workers
Y and managers, tired of the change-
of-the-month club and unlikely to listen to our next idea, no matter how good
it might be. For our complicity in this dismal state of affairs, we are sincerely
2
sorry.
0
The Management
9
Managing people through change 0
Figure 6.2 shows a picture of all-too-common responses to change at various organizational
T
levels.
S
106
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
Figure 6.2 Organizational Response to Change9
Isolated

 
Top management

Middle management
 
 

 
Front-line
employees
S
A
U
N
Squeezed
D
E
R
S
Resistant
S
R
.
,
Top management: Top leaders may underestimate the impact of change on lower levels of the
organization. They expect employees to “go along” when a change is announced and blame
GThey may be so insulated that they truly don’t
middle managers if people resist or complain.
know the results of their decisions and programs.
A
Middle management: Managers in the middleR
feel pressure to implement organizational change,
but often lack information and top leadership direction
to be successful. They feel squeezed beR
tween resistant or withdrawn subordinates andY
demanding but out-of-touch superiors.
Front-line employees: Front-line people may feel threatened by changes announced by management and may respond with denial and resistance,
2 leading eventually to anger and worry. At this
point, employees may shut down and be morale casualties.People judge change primarily on the
0 is personally disruptive, resistance can be great.
basis of how it will affect themselves. If a change
Even computer professionals resist change when
9 computerization impacts their own lives.
People judge a change primarily on the basis0of how it will affect themselves. If a change is
personally disruptive, resistance can be great.T
Even computer professionals resist change when
computerization impacts their own lives. Loss
S of control is one of the things people dislike
most about change. Out of a need for control, they may choose dysfunction over uncertainty.
Often, the only way to get people to say good-bye to the past is to convince them that the price
of holding onto it is too high and that change is the only way to survive.
107
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
Rules to guide leaders in implementing change
When organizations have the right goals in mind—they want to be customer-focused, qualityconscious, empowered, and profitable—and the reason for change is accounted for by market
competition, customer demands, and other forces, the question of how to implement or manage
change should be addressed. Seven rules should guide leaders in all change efforts:
1. Have a good reason for making a change. Consider each change carefully against the
following criteria: Will it support the organization’s mission, purpose, and goals; does
it reflect the organization’s basic principles and core values? If the answer is no, don’t
change. Change for change-sake is a waste
S of precious resources, including people’s time.
A where you stand. Explain your commitment.
2. Personalize change. Let people know
Why is the change important to you?UHow will you be affected if the change is successful or if it fails? Why is this change important to them? What do they stand to gain
N
or lose? People may resist or give lukewarm support to a change initiative unless they
see how they will personally benefit. D
E
3. Implement change thoughtfully. Follow four proven principles: Involve the people who
are affected by the change (the personRin the boat with you will never bore a hole in it);
go slow, giving people time to adjust (if
Syou go too fast, you will have an empty train going down the tracks; sometimes you must slow down to increase the speed); keep people
informed through constant personal communication (however much you communicated
S (not just mentally, but physically as well).
before, raise the level by 10); be available
R coordinating change. Select someone who is
4. Put a respected person in charge of
. power of the group through transition teams to
trusted by all. Then tap the constructive
plan, coordinate, and communicate change
efforts. Provide training in new knowledge,
,
attitudes, and skills to support change.
5. Tell the truth. When change is necessary,
G give the facts and rationale, not sugar-coated
pep talks. Trust goes up when the truth is shared. Only after people know the truth and
come to terms with negative feelingsA
can they focus effectively on the future.
R
6. Wait patiently for results. It takes time for a seed to grow, and it takes time to realize
R rapid can be destructive. Rush the process and
benefits from change. Change that is too
reduce the results. The effective leader
Y knows personal, political, and financial costs
accompany any organizational change, and is willing to pay the price. To ensure success, install methods for tracking progress and stay personally involved.
2
7. Acknowledge and reward people. As change is made, take time to recognize people
and show appreciation. Acknowledge0the struggles, sacrifices, and contributions people have made. A word of thanks goes9 a long way.
0 remember the different time and information
In helping people through change, leaders must
perspectives of different levels of the organization.
Senior leaders may be anxious to impleT
ment changes that front-line personnel are just
learning
about. Listening, understanding and
S
patience are necessary for successful change to occur.
Social psychologist Kurt Lewin identified a three-step process for managing people through
change. The same steps apply in all change initiatives – parents in the home, managers on the
108
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
job, and leaders in the community. First, unfreeze the status quo. Second, move to the desired
state. Third, live by conditions that become the new, but not rigid, status quo.10
ƒƒ Unfreezing involves reducing or eliminating resistance to change. As long as people
drag their heels about a change, it will never be implemented effectively. To accept
change, people must first deal with and resolve feelings about letting go of the old. Only
after people have dealt successfully with endings are they ready to make transitions.
ƒƒ Moving to the desired state usually involves considerable two-way communication, including group discussion. Lewin advised that the person managing change should make sugS
gestions and encourage discussion. Brainstorming,
benchmarking, field study, and library
A
research are good techniques for channeling the energies of the group. The best way to
overcome resistance to change is to involve
U people in the changes that will affect them.
ƒƒ Living by new conditions involves such
N factors as pointing out the successes of the
change and finding ways to reward the
D people involved in implementing the change.
This shows appreciation for their efforts and increases their willingness to participate
E
in future change efforts.
R
In dealing with change, employees are oftenSfaced with uncertainty and lack of role clarity.
The Role of the Individual
Often there are more questions than answers. In such times, success belongs to the committed,
to those individuals who work from the heartSand adjust quickly when change occurs. These
individuals create role clarity for themselves. They chase down the information they need and
R purpose and goals. Then they attack the work
align their efforts with the organization’s larger
to be done as best as they understand it to be..Two rules to follow are: 1) contribute more than
you cost; and 2) make your customer your first
, priority.
Imagine a work force that costs more than it contributes; this is a dying institution. Imagine a
work force that contributes more than it costs;Gthis is a thriving, growing institution that meets
the needs of employers and employees alike. The successful individual focuses on performance
and results, not tenure, activity level, or goodAintentions. The successful employee contributes
R
more than he costs.
R
The second rule is to put your customer first. Identify who you are supposed to serve—the
Y report, etc. Then get close to your customer.
paying customer, another department, a direct
Anticipate her needs, know her preferences, and develop a reputation for responsiveness.
Make customer satisfaction your number one commitment. The successful individual makes
2
the customer king.
0
To personalize the subject, consider yourself: Are your efforts aligned with your organization’s
9
purpose and goals? Do you contribute more than you cost? Who is your customer and what
0 number one priority?
evidence shows that his or her interests are your
T
S
There are many models for understanding organizational
change. One of the best is an eightUnderstanding complex organizational change
stage process provided by John Kotter of Harvard University. Kotter’s model summariz…
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