Rankine Cycler experiment La Report Assignment 5 This lab report is for Thermal Lab (Mechanical Eng. Class). I have attached all files that would help writ

Rankine Cycler experiment La Report Assignment 5 This lab report is for Thermal Lab (Mechanical Eng. Class). I have attached all files that would help writing this report. (Format, data, etc). •
Complete data for the Rankine Cycler experiment (Exp#5) is now posted on
Beachboard. Please use it for the calculations and analysis.
Explain the following information in the theory section of this report:
What are the major differences between a gas turbine and a steam power
plant. Compare the thermodynamic cycles of the two engines. Which engine
is more efficient and why?
Data collected by the data acquisition software is used to plot various graphs
listed in part I. One set of data has also been selected to complete the
calculations in part II. As discussed in class, the state and enthalpy at point 1
(steam leaving the boiler) must be determined using property tables, and detailed
analysis and interpolations must be included in your sample calculations. The
link Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems must be used to find the
enthalpy at every point of analysis (point 1, 2, 3/4, and 5) and the entropy at
point 2. These values must be presented in the following table. Note that point 5
is assumed to be saturated liquid at Patm . :
Point
T (oF)
P (psia)
state
h (Btu/lbm)
1
S (Btu/lbmR)
NR
2
3/4
3i
NR
NR
5
Saturated liqiud
NR
Note that these enthalpy values must be used in calculations and analysis
of various components.
The results of part 2 calculations must be presented in a table. Make
sure to include the units
Attached is the description of required calculations for this lab
Attachment(s):
Attachment(s):
Lab 5 Required Calculations.pdf
(216.63 KB
Section 5 -Rankine Cycler Data
3/26/2019
Use the following data to plot the graphs in part one of the calculations:
Time (sec)
Boiler T (F)
Turbine In T (F)
Turbine Ex T (F)
Boiler P (psig)
0
356.146
251.303
224.778
115.918
10
356.673
251.802
225.152
115.724
20
356.116
251.347
224.78
115.559
30
356.112
251.281
224.598
115.383
40
356.634
251.866
225.302
115.251
50
357.001
252.208
225.593
115.118
60
356.663
251.932
225.482
115.017
70
356.176
251.503
224.956
114.997
80
355.943
251.239
224.961
114.968
90
355.721
251.06
224.778
114.953
100
355.478
250.944
224.528
114.967
110
355.397
250.87
224.473
114.954
120
355.192
250.705
224.366
114.964
130
354.796
250.446
224.285
114.93
140
354.752
250.453
224.311
114.918
150
354.674
250.455
224.141
114.857
160
354.382
250.352
224.009
114.807
170
354.404
250.512
223.909
114.678
180
354.002
250.192
223.839
114.514
190
353.956
250.255
223.716
114.402
200
353.71
250.492
223.424
114.242
210
353.589
250.084
223.384
114.095
220
353.346
249.964
223.147
113.95
230
353.297
250.012
223.211
113.76
240
352.956
249.882
222.856
113.567
250
352.678
250.208
222.039
113.4
260
352.3
252.959
221.18
113.217
270
352.057
259.777
221.307
112.976
280
351.859
265.067
221.567
112.708
290
351.85
266.775
223.286
112.565
300
351.744
249.102
223.62
112.309
Use the following data to complete the second part of the analysis:
Boiler T (F)
354.002
Turbine In T (F)
250.192
Turbine Ex T (F)
223.839
Water used in run (ml)
Total water used (ml)
Condensate collected (ml)
Atmospheric pressure (psi)
Time of run (min)
Boiler P (psig)
114.514
1700
2440
180
14.71
5
Turbine In P (psig)
13.722
Turbine In P (psig) Turbine Ex P (psig)
Fuel Flow (gal/min)
RPM
Voltage (Volts)
13.649
3.889
1.438
2330.148
9.15
13.638
3.879
1.437
2282.235
8.896
13.619
3.849
1.437
2301.977
8.985
13.621
3.841
1.438
2266.849
8.859
13.598
3.818
1.437
2278.493
8.917
13.571
3.796
1.439
2269.085
8.876
13.57
3.778
1.437
2290.207
8.976
13.567
3.774
1.439
2347.623
9.238
13.593
3.773
1.438
2315.392
9.119
13.6
3.764
1.438
2245.53
8.736
13.594
3.754
1.438
2241.797
8.711
13.624
3.746
1.439
2282.651
8.891
13.649
3.761
1.44
2262.931
8.829
13.622
3.744
1.441
2300.291
8.971
13.666
3.747
1.439
2329.129
9.109
13.671
3.734
1.441
2330.148
9.113
13.772
3.748
1.44
2303.442
9.033
13.743
3.731
1.441
2326.359
9.153
13.722
3.708
1.441
2333.083
9.14
13.725
3.703
1.442
2294.224
8.982
13.812
3.709
1.442
2315.994
9.093
13.827
3.686
1.443
2290.135
8.954
13.782
3.679
1.442
2316.313
9.079
13.824
3.688
1.442
2322.372
9.124
13.752
3.654
1.443
2307.554
9.045
13.809
3.636
1.442
2312.65
9.074
13.795
3.628
1.443
2277.719
8.851
13.782
3.612
1.442
2220.707
8.609
13.718
3.595
1.444
2256.092
8.748
13.731
3.582
1.443
2225.224
8.624
13.683
3.561
1.445
2192.594
8.493
Turbine Ex P (psig) Fuel Flow (gal/min)
3.708
1.441
RPM
2333.083
Voltage (Volts)
9.14
Current (Amps)
0.263
Current (Amps)
Power (Watts)
0.247
2.26
0.24
2.137
0.243
2.181
0.24
2.122
0.241
2.149
0.24
2.129
0.243
2.177
0.249
2.304
0.246
2.245
0.251
2.196
0.251
2.184
0.256
2.274
0.254
2.244
0.258
2.315
0.262
2.387
0.262
2.39
0.26
2.347
0.263
2.41
0.263
2.402
0.258
2.321
0.261
2.378
0.258
2.306
0.261
2.37
0.262
2.394
0.26
2.352
0.259
2.349
0.268
2.368
0.259
2.233
0.265
2.317
0.262
2.263
0.259
2.199
Power (Watts)
2.402
The Analysis of Rankine Cycler
Background
Thermodynamics is the study of heat and
temperature and their relation to energy and
work. Through this study, it is possible to create
plants for power generation and predict the
amount of energy that can be extracted from
natural resources used.
Modern day
thermodynamics and power plant systems are
developments of work from William Rankine, a
Scottish civil engineer. Rankine developed a
theoretical process, known as the Rankine Cycle,
which could produce electricity.
Processes
The Rankine Cycle includes the following four steps:
1. Water is pumped into a closed container called a
boiler
2. Temperature and pressure of water is increased
as it is heated in the boiler and turns into steam
3. The steam expands through a turbine where
work is produced and pressure drops
4. The temperature of the exit steam is reduced,
condensing it back to water, before being pumped
back into the boiler
Components
The four major components of a steam power plant are the boiler, the
turbine, the condenser, and the pump:
? Water is heated in the boiler, to begin the extraction of
energy.
? The turbine converts this energy into work as the high
temperature and high pressure steam that flows through,
rotates the blades and shaft. Steam exits the turbine at a
lower pressure.
? Steam enters the condenser, heat is removed allowing the
steam to cool and condense back to water. The rate at which
the steam is cooled depends on the coolant and method used
in the condenser.
? Finally, the work is supplied by the pump, in order to
transport the water back into the boiler, and repeat the cycle.
Ideal Rankine Cycle
From a thermodynamic point of view, phenomenon that occurs at
each of these four stages, can be explained through an ideal cycle
consist of the following processes:
?
?
?
?
1-2: Isentropic compression in pump
2-3: Constant pressure heat addition in boiler
3-4: Isentropic expansion in turbine
4-1: Constant pressure heat rejection in condenser
Laws and Equations
• With knowledge of the operation and state
changes at each of the four components of
the Rankine Cycle, equations can be derived
to calculate how energy is transformed
through each process
• All the four components are steady flow
devices, thus all the processes that make up
the Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady
flow processes (Figure 2)
Pump
At state 1, water enters the pump as a saturated
liquid and is compressed isentropically to the
operating pressure of the boiler. The water
temperature increases during this isentropic
process due to a slight decrease in the specific
volume of the water. Assuming no heat transfer to
the surroundings, the work of the pump is as
follows:
Wpump,in = h2 – h1 = V1(P1 – P2)
• h1 = hf@P1 and V1 = Vf@P1
Boiler
At state 2, water enters the boiler as a
compressed liquid. The boiler is basically a large
heat exchanger where the heat originating from
combustion gases is transferred to the water
essentially at constant pressure. The boiler
together with the section where steam is superheated is called as steam generator.
qin = h3 – h2
Turbine
At state 3 superheated vapor enters the
turbine, where it expands isentropically
and produces work by rotating the shaft
connected to an electric generator. After
passing through the turbine, steam loses
temperature and pressure both
Wturbine,out = h3 – h4
Condenser
At state 4, the cooled down steam enters the
condenser. It is a liquid-vapor mixture of high quality.
Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the
condenser, which is basically a large heat exchanger, by
rejecting the heat to a cooling medium such as a river
or atmosphere. Steam leaves the condenser as
saturated liquid and enters the pump and thus
completing the cycle :
qout = h4 – h1
Energy Balance & Thermal Efficiency
Overall, the energy balance of the entire system
is:
(qin- qout) – (wturbine, out – wpump, in) = 0
The thermal efficiency of the Rankine Cycle is
determined from:
?th = wnet ,out/qin = 1 – qout/qin
Where the net work output from the cycle is:
Wnet ,out = Wturbine, out – Wpump, in = qin – qout
Heat Rate
The conversion efficiency of power plants in the United
States is often expressed in terms of heat rate, which is
the amount of heat supplied, in BTUs to generate 1
kWh of electricity. The smaller the heat rate, greater
the efficiency. Considering that 1 kWh = 3412 Btu and
disregarding the losses associated with the conversion
of shaft power to electric power, the relation between
the heat rate and the thermal efficiency can be
expressed as
?th = 3412 (Btu/kWh) / Heat rate (Btu/kWh)
Actual vs. Ideal
•
•
•
•
In an actual vapor cycle, irreversibility exist in forms of
friction and undesired heat loss to surroundings.
Therefore, compensation is added to maintain output.
Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler, the
condenser, and the connecting pipes.
To compensate for these pressure drops, the water
needs to be pumped to a higher pressure.
Heat loss from steam to surroundings takes place when
steam flows through the connecting pipes and the
various components. To maintain the same work
output, more heat needs to be transferred to the steam
in the boiler.
Isentropic Efficiency
The deviation of actual pumps and turbines
from the isentropic ones can be accounted for
by utilizing adiabatic efficiencies: The
following equations take these deviations into
account:
?pump = Ws/Wa = (h2s- h1)/(h2a-h1)
?turbine = Wa/Ws = (h3- h4a)/(h3-h4s)
Where the subscript “a” refers to the actual value and subscript “s”
refers to the isentropic value.
The Rankine Cycler
• Manufactured by the Turbine Technologies, the
Rankine Cycler utilizes three of the four main
components (boiler, turbine/generator, and condenser),
• Instrumentation including a Flow meter,
thermocouples, pressure transducers, and a PC dataacquisition system. various meters, thermocouples,
controls, and a PC data-acquisition system are included
As a pump is not used to recirculate
the water, the system models an “open
cycle,” where water is introduced to
the system via storage in the boiler,
and collected after the condenser.
However, this system can still be used
to accurately determine similar
aspects of a closed Rankine Cycle.
Boiler
The Boiler is a dual-pass, flame through tube-type unit. A forced
air gas burner fires it. The burner fan speed is electronically
adjustable to operate with a minimum of excess air. The
system’s purpose-built burner fan results in extremely clean
combustion while burning LP gas. A vortex disc, located
downstream of the blower, mixes fuel and air, and sets up a
vortex gas flow. Heat is efficiently transferred from the flame
tube to the boiler’s water.
The boiler is shell and tube style construction. Given
the basic construction dimensions, the available
volume for water in the boiler can be calculated.
Main Shell External Length = 29.65 cm
Main Shell Wall Thickness = 0.64 cm
End Plate Outside Diameter = 20.70 cm
End Plate wall thickness = 0.64 cm
Main Flame Tube Outside Diameter =
5.08 cm
16 Return Pass Flame Tubes Outside
Diameter = 1.90 cm
Steam Turbine / Generator Set
The steam turbine consists of the
following major components:
1. A precision machined stainless
steel front and rear housing.
2. Front and rear bronze
bearings.
3. Front and rear bearing oilers.
4. A stainless steel shaft.
5. A nozzle ring and a single stage
shrouded impulse turbine wheel.
A CAD cutaway of the turbine
shows:
1. Steam enters inlet port.
2. Steam flow forced through
slits in stator ring (purple),
impinging on turbine blades,
spinning turbine wheel (red).
3. Steam exits turbine to
condenser
Condenser Tower
The condenser tower provides
cooling to the waste steam so that
it will change phase back to a
liquid. The condenser tower’s
outer mantle is formed from a
single piece of aluminum. Turbine
exhaust steam is piped into the
bottom of the tower. The steam is
kept in close contact with the
outside mantle by means of 4
baffles. A drain hose and clamp
are located at the left rear of the
system. Following an experiment,
the condensate can be drained
into a beaker and measured.
Other Components
• Sight Glass
– A sight glass is provided to indicate boiler water
level. Two level indicators, set by thumbscrew
bezels, can be adjusted at the beginning and end
of each experiment to determine steam rate
(water volume divided by start and stop times).
• Fuel
– Liquid Propane (LP) is vaporized and used as boiler
burner fuel. The LP has the energy content of
2520 Btu/ft3 or 93756 kJ/m3
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH MECHANICAL
AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MAE 337-Thermal Engineering Laboratory
EXP#5-Operating Characteristics of a Steam power plant
The Analysis of Rankine Cycle
Objective
The main objective of this experiment is to determine the characteristics of a steam power plant
and gain an understanding of the Rankine Cycler System as a whole and details of each
component making up the system.
Introduction
One of the most significant contributions to the development and continuation of our modern
technological way of life has been the ability to obtain vast amounts of energy from natural
resources. These energy sources allow us to control work, power and heat to meet the demands
of societies around the world. Typical natural resources with energy use capabilities include oil,
natural gas, coal, wood, water, wind, solar, and nuclear.
Electricity that we use to power countless aspects of our life is typically generated using these
natural resources to fuel the processes. Since electricity can’t be stored for later use, it has to be
generated on demand. So, there are base load power plants that are sized to generate electricity
to meet a majority of the typical demand. They have a constant fuel source and can run around
the clock as needed. These base load plants are connected to and supply electricity to an
electrical grid that gets this electricity to your home, school or business. Power companies
monitor the grid to determine where and how much electricity is needed. The base load plants
are sized and scheduled to serve the normal amount of electricity needs of the grid users in a
reliable manner. They run at various output levels, in a balanced fashion to accomplish this
goal.
Thermodynamics is the science that explains and allows us to predict the amount of energy we
may extract from these resources and how efficient it can be done. It is the science that studies
energy in its various forms or types and helps explain why some types of energy are better than
others.
A Scottish civil engineer by the name of William Rankine was one of the founding fathers of
modern day thermodynamics. A major aspect of thermodynamics concerns itself with methods
of converting heat into useful work, or power. Rankine was born in 1820 and established a
1
theoretical process that is still used today for the production of most of the world’s electric
power. That process was named in his honor and is known as the “Rankine Cycle”.
The Rankine Cycle produces electrical power through four basic steps:
1. Water is pumped into a closed container called a boiler
2. The boiler is heated and the water changes into high pressure steam
3. The steam is shot out of a nozzle that’s aimed at a paddle wheel. This paddle wheel is
called a turbine. The expanding steam causes the turbine wheel to spin, which is
connected to a generator that produces electricity
4. The steam coming out of the turbine condenses back into water, which is pumped back
into the boiler to start the process or “cycle” all over again
Components of a steam power plant
As seen in Figure 1 steam power plant is mainly composed of the following components:
Pump: Water first enters the pump as saturated liquid and is compressed to the operating
pressure of the boiler.
Boiler: It is responsible for converting the water into steam. This is achieved by heating the
water in the pipes using the heat from a burning fuel. The steam produced is superheated having
high temperature and high pressure. The amount of heat generated depends on the surface area
of heat transfer, flow rate and the heat of combustion. The boiler has shell and tube style
construction.
Turbine: It is responsible for the conversion of the energy carried by steam into rotational
energy. The steam with high pressure and temperature is used to rotate the shaft. After doing
this work, steam loses temperature and pressure and thus it is fed into the condenser.
Condenser: The steam after it passes through the turbine is brought into the condenser to cool it
down further into water. The steam flows outside the tubes while the water flows inside the
tubes. This water is then pumped back into the boiler and this is how the process gets repeated.
The heat transfer in this case mainly depends on the flow of the cooled water and the
temperature difference between the steam and cooling water.
2
Fig 1: Schematic of Steam Power Plant
Ideal Cycle
The ideal cycle for steam power plant is Rankine cycle. All the four components are steady flow
devices, thus all the processes that make up the Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady flow
processes (Figure 2).
At state 1, water enters the pump as a saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to the
operating pressure of the boiler. The water temperature increases during this isentropic process
due to a slight decrease in the specific volume of the water.
At state 2, water enters the boiler as a compressed liquid. The boiler is basically a large heat
exchanger where the heat originating from combustion gases is transferred to the water
essentially at constant pressure. The boiler together with the section where steam is superheated is called as steam generator.
At state 3 superheated vapor enters the turbine, where it expands isentropically and produces
work by rotating the shaft connected to an electric generator. After passing through the turbine,
steam loses temperature and pressure both.
At state 4 the cooled down steam enters the condenser. It is a liquid-vapor mixture of high
quality. Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser, which is basically a large
3
heat exchanger, by rejecting the heat to a cooling medium such a river or atmosphere. Steam
leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and enters the pump and thus completing the cycle.
Fig 2: T-S diagram of ideal Rankine Cycle
1-2 Isentropic compression in pump
2-3 Constant pressure heat addition in the boiler
3-4 Isentropic expansion in the turbine
4-1 Constant pressure rejection in the condenser
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle
All the four components associated with the Rankine cycle (pump, boiler, tu…
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Rankine Cycler experiment La Report Assignment 5 This lab report is for Thermal Lab (Mechanical Eng. Class). I have attached all files that would help writ
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay
Homework Market Pro
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Our Unique Features

Custom Papers Means Custom Papers

This is what custom writing means to us: Your essay starts from scratch. Plagiarism is unacceptable. We demand the originality of our academic essay writers and they only deliver authentic and original papers. 100% guaranteed! If your final version is not as expected, we will revise it immediately.

Qualified and Experienced Essay Writers

Our team consists of carefully selected writers with in-depth expertise. Each writer in our team is selected based on their writing skills and experience. Each team member is able to provide plagiarism-free, authentic and high-quality content within a short turnaround time.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Assuarance

We understand you. Spending your hard earned money on a writing service is a big deal. It is a big investment and it is difficult to make the decision. That is why we support our claims with guarantees. We want you to be reassured as soon as you place your order. Here are our guarantees: Your deadlines are important to us. When ordering, please note that delivery will take place no later than the expiry date.

100% Originality & Confidentiality

Every paper we write for every order is 100% original. To support this, we would be happy to provide you with a plagiarism analysis report on request.We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

We help students, business professionals and job seekers around the world in multiple time zones. We also understand that students often keep crazy schedules. No problem. We are there for you around the clock. If you need help at any time, please contact us. An agent is always available for you.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Our services are second to none. Every time you place an order, you get a personal and original paper of the highest quality.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

While a college paper is the most common order we receive, we want you to understand that we have college writers for virtually everything, including: High school and college essays Papers, book reviews, case studies, lab reports, tests All graduate level projects, including theses and dissertations Admissions and scholarship essays Resumes and CV’s Web content, copywriting, blogs, articles Business writing – reports, marketing material, white papers Research and data collection/analysis of any type.

Admissions

Any Kind of Essay Writing!

Whether you are a high school student struggling with writing five-paragraph essays, an undergraduate management student stressing over a research paper, or a graduate student in the middle of a thesis or dissertation, homeworkmarketpro.com has a writer for you. We can also provide admissions or scholarship essays, a resume or CV, as well as web content or articles. Writing an essay for college admission takes a certain kind of writer. They have to be knowledgeable about your subject and be able to grasp the purpose of the essay.

Reviews

Quality Check and Editing Support

Every paper is subject to a strict editorial and revision process. This is to ensure that your document is complete and accurate and that all of your instructions have been followed carefully including creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Prices and Discounts

We are happy to say that we offer some of the most competitive prices in this industry. Since many of our customers are students, job seekers and small entrepreneurs, we know that money is a problem. Therefore, you will find better prices with us compared to writing services of this calibre.