Crucial Development 1905-1910 in Modern Art and Physics Discussion. Please respond to the following discussion topic and submit it to the discussion forum.

Crucial Development 1905-1910 in Modern Art and Physics Discussion. Please respond to the following discussion topic and submit it to the discussion forum. Your initial post should be 75-150 words in length Video Lectures
Click on the links provided below, and take notes to aid you in your assignment and our discussion this
week:
•
“1907-1960 Age of Global Conflict” at:http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1907-1960-Age-ofGlobal-Conflict.html
•
“Picasso’s Guernica” at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lo5OSGg1k0
•
“Expressionism & Kirchner’s Street, Dresden” at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfZu-psur8
•
“Three Futurists Balla, Severini and Boccioni”
at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oduTo7NeF9A
•
“Duchamp and the Ready-Mades” at:http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dada.html
GLOSSARY TERMS:
The following are glossary terms with which you need to become familiar and to utilize within your work
this week. You do not need to utilize them all; however, you need to utilize at least three of these terms
per assignment response. Please note that some terms are carried over from previous weeks as they
apply. Still, you should review all terms each week.
•
Analytic Cubism
o
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Art Deco
o
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Descended from Art Nouveau, this movement of the 1920s and 1930s sought to
upgrade industrial design in competition with “fine art” and to work new materials into
decorative patterns that could be either machined or handcrafted. Characterized by
streamlined, elongated, and symmetrical design.
Avant-garde
o
•
The first phase of Cubism, developed jointly by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, in
which the artists analyzed form from every possible vantage point to combine the
various views into one pictorial whole.
French, “advance guard” (in a platoon). Late-19th- and 20th-century artists who
emphasized innovation and challenged established convention in their work. Also used
as an adjective.
Bauhaus
o
A school of architecture in Germany in the 1920s under the aegis of Walter Gropius,
who emphasized the unity of art, architecture, and design.
•
Collage
o
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Constructivism
o
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German, “the bridge.” An early-20th-century German Expressionist art movement under
the leadership of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The group thought of itself as the bridge
between the old age and the new.
Expressionism (adj. Expressionist)
o
•
German, “the blue rider.” An early-20th-century German Expressionist art movement
founded by Vassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The artists selected the whimsical name
because of their mutual interest in the color blue and horses.
Die Brücke
o
•
Dutch, “the style.” An early-20th-century art movement (and magazine), founded by
Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg, whose members promoted utopian ideals and
developed a simplified geometric style.
Der Blaue Reiter
o
•
An early-20th-century art movement prompted by a revulsion against the horror of
World War I. Dada embraced political anarchy, the irrational, and the intuitive. A disdain
for convention, often enlivened by humor or whimsy, is characteristic of the art the
Dadaists produced.
De Stijl
o
•
An early-20th-century art movement that rejected naturalistic depictions, preferring
compositions of shapes and forms abstracted from the conventionally perceived world.
See also Analytic Cubism and Synthetic Cubism.
Dada
o
•
An early-20th-century Russian art movement formulated by Naum Gabo, who built up
his sculptures piece by piece in space instead of carving or modeling them. In this way
the sculptor worked with “volume of mass” and “volume of space” as different
materials.
Cubism
o
•
A composition made by combining on a flat surface various materials, such as
newspaper, wallpaper, printed text and illustrations, photographs, and cloth.
Twentieth-century art that is the result of the artist’s unique inner or personal vision
and that often has an emotional dimension. Expressionism contrasts with art focused on
visually describing the empirical world.
Fauves
o
French, “wild beasts.” See Fauvism.
•
Fauvism
o
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Futurism
o
•
A 20th-century American art movement that portrayed American rural life in a clearly
readable, realist style. Major Regionalists include Grant Wood and Thomas Hart Benton.
Surrealism
o
•
The incorporation in early-20th-century Western art of stylistic elements from the
artifacts of Africa, Oceania, and the native peoples of the Americas.
Regionalism
o
•
A composition made by pasting together pictures or parts of pictures, especially
photographs. See also collage.
Primitivism
o
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The Dutch artist Piet Mondrian’s theory of “pure plastic art,” an ideal balance between
the universal and the individual using an abstract formal vocabulary.
Photomontage
o
•
A successor to Dada, Surrealism incorporated the improvisational nature of its
predecessor into its exploration of the ways to express in art the world of dreams and
the unconscious. Biomorphic Surrealists, such as Joan Miró, produced largely abstract
compositions. Naturalistic Surrealists, notably Salvador Dalí, presented recognizable
scenes transformed into a dream or nightmare image.
Neoplasticism
o
•
An early-20th-century Italian art movement that championed war as a cleansing agent
and that celebrated the speed and dynamism of modern technology.
Naturalistic Surrealism
o
•
An early-20th-century art movement led by Henri Matisse. For the Fauves, color became
the formal element most responsible for pictorial coherence and the primary conveyor
of meaning.
A successor to Dada, Surrealism incorporated the improvisational nature of its
predecessor into its exploration of the ways to express in art the world of dreams and
the unconscious. Biomorphic Surrealists, such as Joan Miró, produced largely abstract
compositions. Naturalistic Surrealists, notably Salvador Dalí, presented recognizable
scenes transformed into a dream or nightmare image.
Synthetic Cubism
o
A later phase of Cubism, in which paintings and drawings were constructed from objects
and shapes cut from paper or other materials to represent parts of a subject, in order to
engage the viewer with pictorial issues, such as figuration, realism, and abstraction.
•
Trompe l’oeil
o
French, “fools the eye.” A form of illusionistic painting that aims to deceive viewers into
believing that they are seeing real objects rather than a representation of those objects.
The Big Picture Modernism in Europe and America, 1900 to 1945
Europe 1900 to 1920
•
In the early 1900s, avant-garde artists searched for new definitions of art in a changed world.
Matisse and the Fauves used bold colors as the primary means of conveying feeling. German
Expressionist paintings by Die Brücke featured clashing colors, disquieting figures, and
perspective distortions.
•
Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque radically challenged prevailing artistic conventions with
Cubism. The Cubists dissected forms and placed them in interaction with the space around
them.
•
The Futurists focused on motion in time and space in their effort to create paintings and
sculptures that captured the dynamic quality of modern life. The Dadaists celebrated the
spontaneous and intuitive, exploring the role of chance in art and often incorporating found
objects in their works.
Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913
United States 1900 to 1930
•
The Armory Show of 1913 introduced avant-garde European art to American artists. Man Ray,
for example, embraced Dada’s fondness for the displacement of ordinary items, and Stuart
Davis adopted the Cubist interest in fragmented form.
•
The Harlem Renaissance brought African American artists to the forefront, including Aaron
Douglas, whose paintings drew on Cubist principles. Charles Demuth, Georgia O’Keeffe, and the
Precisionists used European modernist techniques to celebrate contemporary American
subjects.
•
Photography emerged as an important American art form in the work of Alfred Stieglitz and
Edward Weston, who emphasized the careful arrangement of forms and patterns of light and
dark.
Douglas, Noah’s Ark, ca. 1927
Europe 1920 to 1945
•
World War I gave rise to the Neue Sachlichkeit movement in Germany. “New Objectivity” artists
depicted the horrors of war and explored the themes of death and transfiguration.
•
The Surrealists investigated ways to express in art the world of dreams and the unconscious.
Natural Surrealists aimed for “concrete irrationality” in their naturalistic paintings of dreamlike
scenes. Biomorphic Surrealists experimented with automatism and employed abstract imagery.
•
Many European modernists pursued utopian ideals. The Suprematists developed an abstract
style to express pure feeling. The Constructivists used nonobjective forms to suggest the nature
of space-time. De Stijl artists reduced their formal vocabulary to simple geometric forms in their
search for “pure plastic art.”
•
Brancusi, Hepworth, Moore, and other sculptors increasingly turned to abstraction, often
emphasizing voids as well as masses in their work.
•
The Bauhaus in Germany promoted the vision of “total architecture,” which called for the
integration of all the arts in constructing modern living environments. Bauhaus buildings were
unembellished glass and steel designs. In France, Le Corbusier used modern construction
materials to build “machines for living”—houses with open plans and unadorned surfaces.
Dalí, The Persistence of Memory, 1931
Hepworth, Oval Sculpture (No. 2), 1943
United States and Mexico 1930 to 1945
•
Between the wars, Alexander Calder created mobiles (abstract sculptures with moving parts),
but other American artists favored figural art. Lange and Shahn chronicled social injustice.
Hopper explored the loneliness of life in the Depression era. Lawrence recorded the struggle of
African Americans. Wood depicted life in rural Iowa.
•
Mexican artists Orozco and Rivera painted epic mural cycles of the history of Mexico. Kahlo’s
powerful paintings explored the human psyche and were frequently autobiographical.
•
The leading American architect of the first half of the 20th century was Frank Lloyd Wright, who
promoted “organic architecture,” in which free individuals move in a “free” space.
Wright, Fallingwater, 1936–1939
Chapter Introduction
Framing the Era
Picasso Disrupts the Western Pictorial Tradition
An artist whose importance to the history of art is uncontested, Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) was blessed
with boundless talent and an inquisitive intellect that led him to make groundbreaking contributions to
Western pictorial art. In 1907, with Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon; Fig. 29-1),
he opened the door to a radically new method of representing forms in space. Picasso began the work
as a symbolic picture to be titled Philosophical Bordello, portraying two male clients (who, based on
surviving drawings, had features resembling Picasso’s) intermingling with women in the reception room
of a brothel on Avignon Street in Barcelona. One was a sailor. The other carried a skull, an obvious
reference to death. By the time the artist finished, he had eliminated both men and simplified the
room’s details to a suggestion of drapery and a schematic foreground still life. Picasso had become
wholly absorbed in the problem of finding a new way to represent the five women in their interior
space. Instead of depicting the figures as continuous volumes, he fractured their shapes and interwove
them with the equally jagged planes representing drapery and empty space. Indeed, the space, so
entwined with the bodies, is virtually illegible. The tension between Picasso’s representation of threedimensional space and his modernist conviction that a painting is a two-dimensional design on the
surface of a stretched canvas is a tension between representation and abstraction.
Figure 29-1Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907. Oil on canvas, . Museum of Modern Art,
New York (acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest).
© 2014 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, Digital Image © The Museum of
Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource
Figure 29-1A
“Primitive” art helped inspire Picasso’s radical break with traditional Western norms of pictorial
representation. Ancient Iberian sculptures were the sources of the features of the three young women
at the left.
Figure 29-1B
The striated features of the distorted heads of the two young Avignon Street prostitutes at the right
grew directly from Picasso’s increasing fascination with African artworks, which he studied and
collected.
Figure 29-1C
By breaking the figures of the demoiselles into ambiguous planes, as if the viewer were seeing them
from more than one place in space at once, Picasso disrupted the standards of Western art since the
Renaissance.
The artist extended the radical nature of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon even further by depicting the figures
inconsistently. Ancient Iberian sculptures inspired the calm, ideal features of the three prostitutes at the
left. The energetic, violently striated features of the heads of the two women at the right emerged late
in Picasso’s production of the work and grew directly from his increasing fascination with African
sculpture. Perhaps responding to the energy of these two new heads, Picasso also revised the women’s
bodies. He broke them into more ambiguous planes suggesting a combination of views, as if the
observer sees the figures from more than one place in space at once. The woman seated at the lower
right shows these multiple angles most clearly, seeming to present the observer simultaneously with a
three-quarter back view from the left, another from the right, and a front view of the head that suggests
seeing the figure frontally as well. Gone is the traditional Renaissance concept of an orderly,
constructed, and unified pictorial space mirroring the world. In its place are the rudimentary beginnings
of a new approach to representing the world—as a dynamic interplay of time and space. Picasso’s Les
Demoiselles d’Avignon was nothing less than a dramatic departure from and disruption of the Western
pictorial tradition. It set the stage for many other artistic revolutions in the 20th century.

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