Week 6 Chapter 14 Review Orthodox Archbishop Faces His Mother’s Death Create one document for your academic reading journal. Use your name in the title of

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Week and the chapter number (e.g., Week 2: Chapter 2).( it’s week 6 and chapter 14 If the reading is from a different source than the assigned textbook, write the title of the article/chapter.
Summary
Use the question prompts below to help shape your journal. The minimum word count per chapter/article is 200 words for the summary. If you include the question prompts in the journal, please do not inadvertently count the questions toward the word count.
Questions
List at least one question per chapter/article you had that you are unable to answer. Please do not count the questions towards your word count. Responses will be anonymized and utilized to help foster class discussion; information is also shared with guest speakers to help them learn about some of the general questions students may have about the topic/focus area.
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Place your newest entry at the top (i.e.all previous entries should appear below in reverse chronological order). Save all of your subsequent entries in the same document. Your document will grow as the semester progresses, so that each week you will post a slightly larger document than the week before. At the end of the course, you will have a substantial body of reading notes, which you will hopefully draw upon in preparation for other assignments and class discussions.
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Use the following question prompts to frame your academic reading journal summaries. When you include the question prompts in your reading notes, please do not inadvertently count these towards your minimum word count.
What insights or observations does this reading generate?
What new ideas are here for me to consider?
What connections can I make between this reading selection and something else that we have discussed in this course?
What do I still not know or understand about this topic?
How did this reading help me to build knowledge that can be used professionally or personally?
What information from this reading selection resonates with, and contributes to, my interest in these topics?
How is what I am reading different from what I already know?
What challenged me to think about things differently?
What are three of the most important concepts I gleaned from the reading selection?
What do I not agree with from the reading selection, and why?
What aspect of the reading did I find most interesting or difficult?

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Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-3b Leading Causes of Death among Young and Middle Adults
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
14-3b Leading Causes of Death among Young and Middle Adults
Leading causes of death change during adulthood in ways that interact with developmental
issues. For all young adults taken as a group (ages 25–44), accidents were by far the
leading cause of death in 2014 (Heron, 2016). Suicide and homicide were the next two
leading causes of death among adults 25–34 years of age, but they declined in relative
signi?cance to third and fourth leading causes of deaths among adults 35–44 years of age,
while cancer and heart disease became more prominent in this latter age group. This shift
signals a decline during young adulthood in the relative signi?cance of human-induced
deaths and a parallel rise in the relative signi?cance of degenerative diseases—trends that
continue throughout the remainder of the human life course.
During middle adulthood (ages 45–65), cancer and heart disease accounted for more than
51% of all deaths in our society in 2014, followed at a great distance by accidents and a
series of degenerative diseases like chronic lower respiratory diseases and diabetes.
Among cancer deaths in adults, leading causes for both sexes were lung cancer, followed
by prostate and colorectal cancer for males, and by breast and colorectal cancer for
females.
Rates for accidental death during early and middle adulthood were lower than those in
adolescence, but accidents other than those involving motor vehicles became increasingly
more salient as causes of death. Homicide death rates declined during adulthood, while
suicide death rates reached their highest point in the entire life course with a rate of 20.2 per
100,000 in adults between the ages of 45 and 54.
During the 1980s, a new factor appeared in encounters with death: human
immunode?ciency virus (HIV) and acquired immune de?ciency syndrome (AIDS). By 1994,
HIV infection was the leading cause of death for young adults 25–44 years of age,
accounting for 30,260 deaths (Singh, Mathews, Clarke, Yannicos, & Smith, 1995). Yet by
2014, young adult deaths from HIV had fallen to just 1,757 (Heron, 2016), a major decline in
just 20 years because of better education about HIV/AIDS, more effective prevention
measures, and better care for infected persons.
Beyond these present and former leading causes of death, Case and Deaton (2015, p.
15078) noted
a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic
men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change
reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States …
This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from
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drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis.
Although all education groups saw increases in mortality from suicide and
poisonings, and an overall increase in external cause mortality, those with less
education saw the most marked increases. Rising midlife mortality rates of white
non-Hispanics were paralleled by increases in midlife morbidity. Self-reported
declines in health, mental health, and ability to conduct activities of daily living, and
increases in chronic pain and inability to work, as well as clinically measured
deteriorations in liver function, all point to growing distress in this population.
Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-3b Leading Causes of Death among Young and Middle Adults
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
© 2019 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may by reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, or in any other manner – without the written permission of the copyright holder.
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Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-3 Encounters with Death during Young and Middle Adulthood
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
14-3 Encounters with Death during Young and Middle Adulthood
In this section, we explore numbers of deaths and death rates among young and middle
adults, leading causes of deaths in these eras, and two variables of gender and race.
Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-3 Encounters with Death during Young and Middle Adulthood
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
© 2019 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may by reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, or in any other manner – without the written permission of the copyright holder.
https://ng.cengage.com/static/nb/ui/evo/index.html?deploymentId=5813621945022617172198226611&eISBN=9781337563901&id=452122330&nbId=1111167&sna… 1/1
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Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-2 Young and Middle-Aged Adults, Developmental Tasks, and Death
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
14-2 Young and Middle-Aged Adults, Developmental Tasks, and
Death
Young and middle adulthood together ?ll a period of some 40 years in the human life
course, extending from the end of adolescence in the early 20s to the beginning of older
adulthood in the mid-60s. Together this is the longest single era in human development, the
so-called “prime of life,” including two distinct 20-year generational cohorts or
developmental eras in adulthood (young adulthood and middle adulthood) —young
adulthood (roughly ages 21 or 22–45) and middle adulthood or middle age (ages 45–65).
According to Erikson (1963, 1968; see also Hayslip, Patrick, & Panek, 2011), the principal
normative developmental task in young adulthood (to achieve intimacy (vs. the danger
of isolation) in young adulthood; to pursue generativity (vs. the danger of stagnation or selfabsorption) in middle adulthood) is to achieve intimacy (the ability to be open, supportive,
and close with another person, without fear of losing oneself in the process) (vs. the danger
of isolation), while the major task for development in middle adulthood is generativity
(maintaining productivity in one’s life and projects; typically involves reassessing or
reevaluating the meaning and direction of one’s life, conserving or considering prospects for
the continuation or enduring value in one’s legacies, and preparatory efforts to put one’s
affairs in order) (vs. the danger of stagnation or self-absorption).
Despite notable differences, young and middle-aged adults share many issues arising from
new family relationships, work roles, and an evolving set of death-related concerns. Among
the special challenges the adults face is their role as middle-escents or members of the
sandwich generation—individuals situated developmentally between their younger
counterparts (children and adolescents), on one hand, and their predecessors (older adults),
on the other. Still, it is wise to be cautious in making generalizations about these adults and
their experiences because a large number of variables impact their lives and because many
developmental aspects of adulthood have not been well or broadly studied.
In general, young and middle adulthood is a period of exploring and exploiting the identity
established in earlier stages of development through choices about one’s lifestyle,
relationships, and work (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2015; Newman & Newman, 2014). Decisions
made in the vitality of young adulthood chart much of the remaining course of human life in
terms of relationships, vocation, and lifestyle, thereby enabling people to know themselves
in much fuller ways than were possible during adolescence. In middle age, one typically
conserves and draws on personal, social, and vocational resources that were established
earlier. The transition in midlife from young to middle adulthood can focus on what is past
and gone (youth and its distinctive opportunities), or it can lead to a renewed appreciation of
life as one achieves a new understanding of one’s self and decides how to live out the
remainder of one’s life. Once depicted as a tumultuous crisis, the midlife transition (the
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transition from young to middle adulthood) is now usually thought of as a more or less calm
transition in which individual perceptions of responses to events are central (Hunter &
Sundel, 1989).
Within the broad division between early and middle adulthood, Levinson (1978)
distinguished several “seasons” or qualitatively distinct eras in human development with
boundary zones, periods of transition, and characteristic issues. In young adulthood, there
is an early transition from preadulthood, a novice phase in which one enters the adult world
and is involved in “forming a dream,” an internal transition at about age 30, and a period of
“settling down.” Similarly, middle adulthood involves another novice or introductory period,
an internal transition at around age 50, and a concluding period, followed by a further
transition into older adulthood. The boundary between young and middle adulthood for
Levinson is the midlife transition, during which the individual reappraises the past and
terminates young adulthood, modi?es the life structure and initiates middle adulthood, and
seeks to resolve four principal polarities: tensions between young/old, destruction/creation,
masculine/feminine, and attachment/separateness.
It is only fair to note that much of the original research on adulthood was con?ned to male
subjects. However, in a posthumously published study, Levinson (1996) reported results of
detailed interviews with 45 women conducted from 1980 to 1982. This study examined three
groups of young adult women: homemakers, women with careers in the corporate-?nancial
world, and women with careers in academia. From this study, Levinson concluded that the
“alternating sequence of structure building-maintaining periods and transitional periods
holds for both women and men” (p. 36). This is the schema of developmental seasons he
identi?ed in earlier studies of male adults.
Gilligan (1982/1993) was among the ?rst prominent researchers to argue that the course of
human development in females is likely to differ in signi?cant ways from that of their male
counterparts. For example, both male and female adults can ?nd themselves caught
between pressures from older and younger developmental cohorts (parents and/or
children). Still, responses to issues facing the sandwich generation are likely to differ in
important ways for males and females. For example, when an elderly relative or ill child
needs care, adult males historically provided economic and logistical support, whereas
responsibility for practical hands-on care and nurturing was assigned to adult females.
This traditional division of roles by gender may no longer be accurate for many in
contemporary society, partly because many women have assumed new duties outside the
home in the workforce. Still, signi?cant differences are likely to exist between men and
women, largely because of the ongoing in?uence of gender splitting or differences in the
social roles and responsibilities assigned to or taken on by males and females. Many
women who work outside the home are expected to assume a “second shift” or double
burden in which men may help out more but do not generally assume domestic chores and
caregiving. Thus, Levinson (1996) concluded that thorough descriptions of adult life need to
take into account both developmental and gender factors. In short, common aspects in adult
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development may coexist with differences arising from gender, historical variables, and
other factors.
Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-2 Young and Middle-Aged Adults, Developmental Tasks, and Death
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
© 2019 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may by reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, or in any other manner – without the written permission of the copyright holder.
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Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-3a Deaths and Death Rates among Young and Middle Adults
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
14-3a Deaths and Death Rates among Young and Middle Adults
In 2014, adults between the ages of 25 and 64 made up 52.6% of the total population and
they experienced just over 24% of the more than 2.6 million deaths in the United States (see
Table 14.1).
Table 14.1
Number of Deaths during Young and Middle Adulthood, by Age, Race or
Hispanic Origin,
and Gender: United States, 2014
Ages 25 to 34
Both
Ages 35 to 44
Males
Females Both
Sexes
Males
Females
Sexes
All origins
47,177
32,697
14,480
70,996
43,693
27,303
Caucasian
35,408
24,572
10,836
53,674
33,482
20,192
28,969
19,845
9,124
44,565
27,413
17,152
9,549
6,622
2,927
13,997
8,210
5,787
6,575
4,836
1,739
9,168
6,099
3,069
1,277
855
422
2,005
1,202
803
943
648
295
1,320
799
521
Americans,
total
Non-Hispanic
Caucasian
Americans
African
Americans
Hispanic
Americans
Asian and
Paci?c Island
Americans
American
Indians and
Alaska Natives
Ages 45–54
Both
Sexes
Males
Ages 55–64
Females Both
Males
Females
Sexes
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Ages 25 to 34
Both
Males
Ages 35 to 44
Females Both
Sexes
Males
Females
Sexes
All origins
175,917 106,377
69,540 348,808 212,198
136,601
Caucasian
137,497
84,414
53,083 277,580 170,566
107,014
120,679
73,411
47,268 252,298 154,680
97,618
31,815
18,011
13,804
59,972
34,843
25,129
16,705
10,894
5,811
24,701
15,398
9,303
4,229
2,558
1,671
7,954
4,808
3,146
2,376
1,394
982
3,302
1,981
1,321
Americans,
total
Non-Hispanic
Caucasian
Americans
African
Americans
Hispanic
Americans
Asian or
Paci?c Island
Americans
American
Indians and
Alaska Natives
Source: Heron, 2016.
Table 14.1 provides the number of deaths in 2014 from ages 25 to 64 in ten-year age
groupings by gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Overall numbers of deaths rose rapidly
throughout this 40-year period. Further, as shown in Table 14.2, an even steeper increase
was found in death rates for young and middle adults, which rose by more than 8 times from
death rates for those 25–34 years of age to rates for those 55–64 years of age. These
patterns of rapid increase in numbers of deaths and death rates applied to male and female
adults, as well as to all subgroups in the adult population.
Table 14.2
Death Rates (per 100,000) during Young and Middle Adulthood, by Age, Race
or Hispanic Origin,
and Gender: United States, 2014
Ages 25 to 34
Ages 35 to 44
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Ages
34
Both 25 to
Males
44
Females Ages
Both 35 to
Males
Sexes
Both
Females
Sexes
Males
Females Both
Sexes
Males
Females
Sexes
All origins
108.4
148.8
67.2
175.2
216.7
134.1
Caucasian
106.9
145.3
66.9
172.1
212.6
130.7
115.0
155.8
73.2
185.8
227.4
143.8
148.6
212.1
88.6
247.9
308.5
193.9
74.0
103.6
41.3
114.7
149.4
78.5
38.9
54.1
24.8
65.0
83.0
49.1
135.3
179.1
88.0
222.5
264.4
179.0
Americans,
total
Non-Hispanic
Caucasian
Americans
African
Americans
Hispanic
Americans
Asian and
Paci?c Island
Americans
American
Indians and
Alaska Natives
Ages 45 to 54
Both
Males
Ages 55 to 64
Females Both
Sexes
Males
Females
Sexes
All origins
404.8
496.5
315.6
870.3
1,098.2
658.2
Caucasian
397.1
488.9
305.8
844.2
1,063.8
635.1
417.8
511.2
325.5
864.3
1,085.3
653.5
557.2
671.8
455.8
1,265.2
1,611.5
974.8
Americans,
total
Non-Hispanic
Caucasian
Americans
African
Americans
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Ages 25 to 34
Both
Males
Ages 35 to 44
Females Both
Sexes
Hispanic
Males
Females
Sexes
263.9
341.0
185.3
609.4
787.7
443.3
164.5
212.3
122.3
390.7
519.9
283.2
431.0
508.5
354.3
787.9
984.7
606.2
Americans
Asian and
Paci?c Island
Americans
American
Indians and
Alaska Natives
Source: Heron, (2016).
Three principal comparisons highlight notable features of changing mortality patterns in the
United States during adulthood. First, middle adults died in much larger numbers and at
higher rates than did young adults. In 2014, more than four times as many Americans died
in middle age as in young adulthood. This increase occurred in a middle-aged population
that was signi?cantly smaller than the population of young adults. Second, each successive
ten-year cohort of adults experienced a larger number of deaths and a higher death rate.
Third, the very high infant death rates for the population as a whole (594.7 per 100,000
discussed in Chapter 12) are not exceeded until the ?nal ten-year cohort in middle
adulthood (those 55–64 years of age) with death rates of 870.3 per 100,000.
Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-3a Deaths and Death Rates among Young and Middle Adults
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
© 2019 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may by reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, or in any other manner – without the written permission of the copyright holder.
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Chapter 14: Young and Middle-Aged Adults: 14-1 An Orthodox Archbishop Faces His Mother’s Death
Book Title: Death and Dying, Life and Living, 8th ed.
Printed By: Khalid Alahmdi (kaav2b@mail.missouri.edu)
© 2019 Cengage Learning, Cengage Learning
14-1 An Orthodox Archbishop Faces His Mother’s Death
My mother died of cancer over a period of three years. She was operated on unsuccessfully.
The doctor told me about it and then added: “But of course…
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