Eng301 Rogerian Argument Essay and Peer review for Nanette Erickson Peer Evaluation Guidelines, Rogerian Argument Essay Key Criteria: Rhetorical Awarenes

Eng301 Rogerian Argument Essay and Peer review for Nanette Erickson Peer Evaluation Guidelines, Rogerian Argument Essay

Key Criteria:

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Rhetorical Awareness; Purpose and Content; Ethical Use of Sources; Self-Evaluation and Critique; Knowledge of Conventions

Peer Evaluation Questions:

Has the author clearly established the topic and the need for further conversation about the topic?
Do you see a summary of opposing views, and is it clearly identified as opposing views to the author?
Has the author identified what they and their opponents agree about and why?
Is there a clear establishment of their position?
Have they effectively supported the strengths for their position?
Have they addressed drawbacks and/or limitations for their opposition and their own position?
Is there a call to action which addresses what needs to be done and how all parties will benefit?

Responses to the following questions must be in complete sentences; brief responses or quick bullets will result in 0 credit.

Introduction:

What are the strengths of the introduction?Why?
What needs to be improved?How?Be specific.
What are the strengths of the conclusion?Why?
What needs to be improved?How?Be specific.

Body:

What are the main strengths of the body?Why?Highlight at least one example to help the author understand what and why.
Identify at least three areas, or representative areas, that need to be improved.
Why do these need to be improved?
How specifically can these be improved?

Conclusion:

Which main three criteria from the Writing Portfolio Rubric do they do well in addressing?Why?

Do it for each paper student 1 and student 2

Answer each q Eng301 Peer Evaluation Guidelines, Rogerian Argument Essay
Key Criteria:
Rhetorical Awareness; Purpose and Content; Ethical Use of Sources; Self-Evaluation and
Critique; Knowledge of Conventions
Peer Evaluation Questions:
• Has the author clearly established the topic and the need for further conversation about
the topic?
• Do you see a summary of opposing views, and is it clearly identified as opposing views
to the author?
• Has the author identified what they and their opponents agree about and why?
• Is there a clear establishment of their position?
• Have they effectively supported the strengths for their position?
• Have they addressed drawbacks and/or limitations for their opposition and their own
position?
• Is there a call to action which addresses what needs to be done and how all parties will
benefit?
Responses to the following questions must be in complete sentences; brief responses or quick
bullets will result in 0 credit.
Introduction:
• What are the strengths of the introduction? Why?
• What needs to be improved? How? Be specific.
Body:
• What are the main strengths of the body? Why? Highlight at least one example to help
the author understand what and why.
• Identify at least three areas, or representative areas, that need to be improved.
o Why do these need to be improved?
o How specifically can these be improved?
Conclusion:
• What are the strengths of the conclusion? Why?
• What needs to be improved? How? Be specific.
Which main three criteria from the Writing Portfolio Rubric do they do well in addressing?
Why?
Checklist
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Has the author clearly established the topic and the need for further conversation
about the topic?
Well, yes. Although it the underlying issue was a bit too surface. In other words, why
should your reader be concerned about this? You say it could make kids uncomfortable
but what are the further downsides to this? EG maybe alienation leads to lack of learning
or something (although that would be a big stretch) I would think about starting with that
to really give your readers a cause for concern.
Do you see a summary of opposing views, and is it clearly identified as opposing
views to the author?
Yes, I did. In the paragraph regarding constitutional separation between church and state
there was a presentation of opposing views.
Has the author identified what they and their opponents agree about and why?
Not what they agree on necessarily. Maybe present how we need to mend the divide of
ideology.
Is there a clear establishment of their position?
Not yet. A refutation of a point was made but it hasn’t been solidified.
Have they effectively supported the strengths for their position?
Not yet
Have they addressed drawbacks and/or limitations for their opposition and their
own position?
Not completely
Is there a call to action which addresses what needs to be done and how all parties
will benefit?
Not yet
Introduction:
The strengths of the introduction can be found in the setting that you create. The setting is familiar,
I would assume, to practically all public-school students and parents across the country. This helps
set the foundation for a connection that can be made later in the introduction.
I would say that the introductory issue that you present isn’t familiar enough with all of your
readers. Many haven’t seen any evidence of religious culture in schools damage their children,
and more than likely, most of them are Christian themselves. I would suggest trying to find a
common issue, maybe divisiveness or something, that really gets people to sit up in their seats and
read on in concern.
Body:
The main strengths in the body can be found in the structure. You introduce a fact, provide
evidence, and then analyze the evidence. For instance, in your first body paragraph, you allude
to “A Christmas Issue”, which helps aid your credibility. I would name John M. Hartenstein
credentials after his name to let readers know why he has standing to talk about the issue. I
would say that three areas of improvement would be support, some organization, and
completeness. In your body paragraphs, you make certain claims and insert your opinion
without any evidence to back your ideas. This makes it difficult to persuade the reader that
you’re worth agreeing with. I would say that your second body paragraph (beginning with
“Concerns…”) needs to be organized a bit better. Lastly, I would say that completeness is the
elephant in the room for this paper, which you probably already know.
Conclusion:
There is no conclusion quite yet.
Which main three criteria from the Writing Portfolio Rubric do they do well in
addressing? Why?
1. Composing Process
a. You seem to know where you’re going to be headed after the draft portion
b. You recognized that it was a bit incomplete
2. Structures of Argument
a. You seem to have the structure more or less down in an outline.
b. You seem to be pretty familiar with the Rogerian style.
c. You identified and responded to counterarguments.
3. Applied Knowledge of Rhetoric
a. Your introduction asserts an adaptive voice for the Rogerian argument style.
b. You seemed to understand both sides of the argument
Jarred Mac
Eng 301
Professor Coleman
Rogerian Argument
Ease & Automation: Solutions for a Society Growing Dependent on AI
According to a study conducted by Voicebot, as of October of 2018, an estimated 57
million American adults have access to a smart speaker, that is, a speaker that is equipped with
artificial intelligence (also known as A.I.), such as Amazon’s Alexa (Kinsella). These speakers,
easing the process of turning on music, accessing news, waking people up, and checking the
weather, have cut out many of the small tedious methods of doing these things, ultimately
preserving time to complete other non-trivial tasks.
However, many are unaware of the economic impacts of the technological
advancement and integration of AI to substitute tasks. A seemingly innocuous example of this
would be when asking a weather report. For instance, when simply asking: “Alexa, what’s the
weather today?” the demand to tune into cable news to watch the morning weather report is
congruently and instantly diminished. If millions of Americans can enthusiastically rely on AI
such as Amazon’s Alexa to cut through many of the mundane methods of achieving tasks, why
is it important to understand the ramifications of this before embracing the substitution many
of the mundane tasks that are used in the workforce?
Because it isn’t just a small demand for weather reports that are getting pushed out of
the workforce. Vehicles, cashier kiosks – even call centers, are all making rapid moves towards
full automation. After all, it’s cheaper, more sustainable, and more reliable than human labor.
But of course, the occurrence of technology eliminating positions in the workforce isn’t
a new phenomenon with the invention of AI. Since the birth of the automobile, telephone, and
Jarred Mac
Eng 301
Professor Coleman
Rogerian Argument
electricity, jobs have been displaced at the hand of technological advances, and few complain.
However, the scale of the technological revolution that is already underway is said by many
experts to be the largest to ever exist in the history of the United States. According to
numerous studies, an estimated 30 percent of U.S. jobs will be displaced by artificial
intelligence by 2030 and four million U.S. jobs have already been pushed out as a result of
automation as of 2015. The World Economic Forum estimates that by 2020, 5 million jobs will
be lost to AI (____). So, with this already-moving tsunami of job elimination in the U.S., what
can be done to prepare for this transformation?
Some say that we need outlaw automation. Many truck-drivers have reportedly taken
this line, rightfully fearing for their unemployment. According to a poll, in three states, truck
driving is the most common job, making up 3.5 million drivers (Yang). However, it is irrefutable
that automizing this job would be beneficial to society as a whole, with benefits such as faster
delivery, less auto accidents and fatalities, as well as lower prices for distributers and
consumers. Others say that a viable solution would be to offer training for those that occupy
potentially atom jobs to ensure that they have a practical means of labor. Rationally speaking,
this would be similar to everyone going to college – and it is well known that not everyone is
suited for, or even wants to attend college. The chance of a retired truck driver learning to
code in Python? Probably slim.
Another interesting idea is offered by Steve Fuller, arguing that instead of UBI, the
American government should force big data and tech companies to compensate users for the
Jarred Mac
Eng 301
Professor Coleman
Rogerian Argument
data that they gather (Creighton). Although a fascinating proposal, this solution would likely
take years to actually complete and would be excruciatingly difficult to regulate. Aside from
the bureaucracy nightmare that this would ensue, it could end up costing the companies and
the public billions. With the automation dilemma already beginning to take effect, tools for
coping must be instituted as soon as possible.
All of these arguments have one thing in common: they all care about the health of the
economy and the health of all Americans. However, in a time of such definite polarization in
the U.S., much of America has spent time debating ideology while automation has taken hold of
literally millions of jobs in America. While many retreat to their red or blue colored tribe, the
underlying issues that haunt out country still exist, making it virtually impossible to have a
conversation about solutions without being assigned as left or right. It can be easily argued
that this false dichotomy—”one is either a capitalist or a socialist”—has hurt the opportunity
for discourse to discuss this incredibly evident and issue that has already begun to occur.
Andrew Yang, founder of Venture for America and 2020 U.S. presidential candidate,
offers perhaps the most robust and comprehensible solution. Universal Basic Income, or UBI
for short, he claims, offers Americans an imperfect but important step towards protection from
the massive introduction of AI. The concept of UBI is incredibly simple: the U.S. government
guarantees $1,000 a month to every American above the age of 18, no questions asked. This is
available to everyone – regardless of income or employment status, “free and clear”. For those
Jarred Mac
Eng 301
Professor Coleman
Rogerian Argument
already benefitting from social programs, it would be an either-or-decision, $1,000 month with
no questions asked, or a welfare check (or adding to the welfare check to reach $1,000).
A quick calculation will find that this accumulates to $12,000 a year, just below the
current poverty line in America. While this doesn’t provide an independent wage for Americans
to live off of, it does provide a solid foundation to ease the transition of many American jobs to
automation. This $12,000 a year can help finance college, encourage people to take healthy
risks in the workforce, and incentivize people to pursue newly-demanded jobs.
Yang argues that this simple payment of $1,000 each month would encourage people to
find work by eliminating the incentive for beneficiaries of welfare programs to stay unemployed
(many welfare programs rescind benefits when recipients begin working), will reduce
bureaucracy, increase bargaining power for workers, increase entrepreneurship, positively
impact mental health, improve physical health, improve labor market efficiency—and even
increase art production (Yang), all while softening the blow of automation.
These are bold claims, but With U.S. Government debt recently reaching $22 trillion,
one of the most viable concerns of those who are initially opposed to the idea of UBI is the
price tag. There is no doubt that sending $1,000 each month to 250 million American adults
would be an enormous burden on the taxpayers. In fact, it’s estimated that the total cost for
the program would be somewhere around $3 trillion (Yang). This is surely an eye-bulging
estimate; however, as stated earlier, if UBI would replace existing social welfare programs and
social security. To put this in perspective, about $0.993 trillion is already spend for social
Jarred Mac
Eng 301
Professor Coleman
Rogerian Argument
security, along with $0.359 trillion for other federal social welfare programs and $0.125 trillion
for state programs (“What is…”) Cutting out these programs and replacing them with UBI would
reduce the cost of UBI to approximately $1.8 trillion, approximately 10% of the U.S. GDP. Yang
believes that the $1,000 given to Americans will find its way back into the economy and
according to the Roosevelt Institute, grow the economy by approximately $2.5 trillion and
produce approximately $500-600 billion in new revenue from economic growth and activity
(Yang).
The speculative sound to something like UBI can certainly warrant skepticism. However,
there is one reality that must cast away cynics– and that is the inevitability of automation.
Unless people embrace a means of dealing with this issue like Universal Basic Income does,
hardworking Americans will be without income and will undoubtedly suffer. Yang’s UBI
proposal may not be perfect, but his relentless drive to solve the issue of automation when
leaders seem asleep at the wheel is a refreshing change of pace from the deadlocked party
politics of today.
Jarred Mac
Eng 301
Professor Coleman
Rogerian Argument
Works Cited
Creighton, Jolene. “Experts May Have a Viable Alternative to Universal Basic Income.” Futurism,
Futurism, 8 Nov. 2017, futurism.com/ubi-universal-basic-income-alternative.
Kinsella, Bret. “U.S. Smart Speaker Users Rise to 57 Million.” Voicebot, 14 Dec. 2018,
voicebot.ai/2018/10/30/u-s-smart-speaker-users-rise-to-57-million/.
Yang, Andrew. “What Is Universal Basic Income?” Andrew Yang for President, 2019,
www.yang2020.com/what-is-ubi/.
“What Is the Spending on Welfare?” Government Spending in United States: Federal State Local
for 1961 – Charts Tables History, 2019,
www.usgovernmentspending.com/us_welfare_spending_40.html.
“GDP (Current US$).” Literacy Rate, Adult Female (% of Females Ages 15 and above) | Data,
2019, data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?locations=US.
The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial
Revolution. World Economic Form, 2016, The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce
Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution,
www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs.pdf.
Nanette Erickson
Professor Coleman
The Role of Religious Holiday Music in Public Schools
Each year, schools across the United States host concerts in winter to celebrate the
holiday season. These are often festive concerts that provide an opportunity for students to
perform what they’ve been working on during the semester, and for audiences to hear old and
new holiday favorites. However, there are some concerns that playing or singing christmas music
in a public school setting may make some students uncomfortable if their beliefs are not the same
as those expressed by the music they must perform, and violates the separation of church and
state.
In “A Christmas Issue,” John M. Hartenstein argues that Protestant Christianity is so
embedded in American Culture that it influences our perception of what is secular and what is
religious without our being fully aware of it. He first notes the importance of ritual in
establishing religious and cultural identity, especially in immigrant families. When people
immigrate to the United States, they are expected to change so they can fit into American
cultural norms, like their language, culture, and national identity. Yet immigrants are rarely
required to alter their religious identity to assimilate, and thus many minority religions in
America place an emphasis on cultural identity, since that is what binds them to their heritage
when living in a new land. Hartenstein especially notes the use of rituals to establish a sense of
belonging, saying that “The function of religious ritual as a transmitter of social identity, rather
than as a tool of religious indoctrination, is underscored when rituals are performed in a language
other than English,” and notes that even subtle unexplained cues like language can teach children
that they belong and help them identify with the group. In a public school setting, these subtle
cues can take the form of holiday celebrations. For example, a significant amount of time in
December in elementary schools is spent in traditional Christmas activities, many of which are
tied to what students are doing at home. Hartenstein states that “students might be asked to make
objects in school that can be used in home celebrations (such as Christmas tree ornaments), to
talk about what they will be doing at home during Christmas, or to share their Christmas gifts
with the class after the holiday season is over.” Although Christmas is often viewed as having
both religious and secular aspects, Hartenstein argues that because of the religious history and
context that surrounds Christmas, its celebration by definition promotes Christianity whether or
not the birth of Christ is actually mentioned. The ritual activities associated with Christmas, even
those generally regarded as secular, assume that celebrating Christmas in some capacity is the
norm. Therefore, much of the Christmas activities in schools, including music in school holiday
concerts, could be perceived as promoting Christianity and therefore violating the separation of
church and state, as outlined in the Establishment clause of the first amendment.
[Islamic students and public school music paragraph?]
Concerns about the place of music with religious connotations in government-related
settings, like public schools, have valid ideas. The separation of church and state is an important
part of government in the United States, and it seems probable that students would learn better
when they are comfortable in their surroundings and do not feel like an outsider. I also agree that
young children can be especially influenced by their surroundings, and music that implicitly or
explicitly centers around Christmas may not be appropriate. However, I believe that a study of
sacred music, which may include Christmas-related music, is important since most Western
music is based on ideas that were developed for church music. Music is very influenced by
culture since it is used for important ceremonies in both religious and secular contexts, and to
simply cut out holiday music would be cutting out significant parts of music history.
Furthermore, the rulings in several court cases has established that holiday music in public
school concerts is constitutional, as long as the intention is not to promote religion. Even so, it
may be better that an introduction to religious-based music begins when students are older when
they have a better understanding of culture, world religions, and their own identity.
[paragraph on court cases and why sacred music in schools has been ruled to be
constitutional. Specifically landmark case Stratechuck v. Board of Education. Also, discussion of
tests used to determine if something is religious in nature or not.]
[concluding paragraph on similar goals of both arguments. Both want the best for
students, whether it’s learning about music or making sure minority students feel included. Also,
what is appropriate in one school may not be in another due to differences in the student body,
and the cultures represented in each school. Keeping things more secular music-wise until
students are older also has valid support.]
Works Cited
Hartenstein, John M. ?…
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