Disaster Supply Chain: Performing rehab to the existing cache of material Review Kovacs and Spens Chapter 6.This discusses post disaster supply chains. Ass

Disaster Supply Chain: Performing rehab to the existing cache of material Review Kovacs and Spens Chapter 6.This discusses post disaster supply chains. Assume that your pre- and intra-disaster supply chain is established and now the main activities are winding down. Briefly explain the importance of either maintaining “follow on” supplies or preforming rehab to existing cache of material (pick one only). Keep in mind that you need to support both responders and population. Relief Supply Chain
Management for
Disasters:
Humanitarian Aid and
Emergency Logistics
Gyöngyi Kovács
HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Karen M. Spens
HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Relief supply chain management for disasters: humanitarian aid and emergency
logistics / Gyöngyi Kovács and Karen M. Spens, editors.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Summary: “This book furthers the scholarly understanding of SCM in disaster
relief, particularly establishing the central role of logistics in averting
and limiting unnecessary hardships”–Provided by publisher.
ISBN 978-1-60960-824-8 (hbk.) — ISBN 978-1-60960-825-5 (ebook) — ISBN 9781-60960-826-2 (print & perpetual access) 1. Disaster relief. 2.
Humanitarian assistance. 3. Logistics. I. Kovacs, Gyongi, 1977- II. Spens,
Karen M., 1963HV553.R373 2011
363.34’80687–dc22
2011015748
British Cataloguing in Publication Data
A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.
All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the
authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.
Editorial Advisory Board
Ruth Banomyong, Thammasat University, Thailand
Anthony Beresford, Cardiff University, UK
Susanne Hertz, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
Marianne Jahre, Lund University, Sweden
Paul Larson, University of Manitoba, Canada
Tore Listou, Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College, Norway
Peter Schmitz, CSIR, South Africa
Peter Tatham, Cranfield University, UK
List of Reviewers
Ruth Banomyong, Thammasat University, Thailand
Elisabeth Barber, University of New South Wales, Australia
Ira Haavisto, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Graham Heaslip, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland
Paul Larson,University of Manitoba, Canada
Aristides Matopoulos, University of Macedonia, Greece
Stephen Pettit, Cardiff Business School, UK
Joseph Sarkis, Clark University, USA
Peter Schmitz, CSIR, South Africa
Per Skoglund, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
Peter Tathaml,Cranfield University, UK
David Taylor, Cranfield University, UK
Rolando Tomasini, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Y-C J Wu, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Table of Contents
Foreword……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
Preface…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xii
Chapter 1
Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain…………. 1
Paul D. Larson, University of Manitoba, Canada
Chapter 2
Humanitarian Partnerships ? Drivers, Facilitators, and Components: The Case of Non-Food Item
Distribution in Sudan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Rolando M. Tomasini, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Chapter 3
Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand………………………………………………………………. 31
Ruth Banomyong, Thammasat University, Thailand
Apichat Sodapang, Chiangmai University, Thailand
Chapter 4
Humanitarian Aid Logistics: The Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared…………………………….. 45
Anthony Beresford, Cardiff University, UK
Stephen Pettit, Cardiff University, UK
Chapter 5
The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain
Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa…………………………………………………………. 68
David H. Taylor, Sheffield, UK
Chapter 6
Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects…………….. 90
Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Aristides Matopoulos, University of Macedonia, Greece
Odran Hayes, European Agency for Reconstruction, Ireland
Chapter 7
Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing……………………………. 103
Per Skoglund, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
Susanne Hertz, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
Chapter 8
Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains……………………………………………………………… 123
Elizabeth Barber, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy,
Australia
Chapter 9
Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief……………………….. 147
Graham Heaslip, National University of Ireland – Maynooth, Ireland
Chapter 10
Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks……………………………………… 173
Peter Tatham, Griffith University, Australia
Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Chapter 11
A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain…………………………………………………………. 196
Joseph Sarkis, Clark University, USA
Karen M. Spens, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Chapter 12
Disaster Impact and Country Logistics Performance……………………………………………………………….. 208
Ira Haavisto, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Compilation of References…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 225
About the Contributors……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
Index…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 249
Detailed Table of Contents
Foreword……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
Preface…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xii
Chapter 1
Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain…………. 1
Paul D. Larson, University of Manitoba, Canada
This chapter is about relationship building in relief supply chains. Its primary purpose is to present and
discuss the author’s actor-based typology of humanitarian relationships. The framework includes relationships among NGOs, as well as between NGOs and UN agencies, military units, and business firms.
Examples are used to explore unique issues in the various types of relationships. One particular NGO,
Airline Ambassadors International, is offered as an example of an NGO that builds relationships with
a wide variety of humanitarian actors. The chapter also examines compatibility and complementarity
of organizations across the three phases of humanitarian work: preparation, response and recovery or
development. Research opportunities are discussed in the concluding comments.
Chapter 2
Humanitarian Partnerships ? Drivers, Facilitators, and Components: The Case of Non-Food Item
Distribution in Sudan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Rolando M. Tomasini, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Through the use of a case study this chapter discusses the design of a partnership between humanitarian
organizations to understand what are the drivers, facilitators, and components of the partnership. This
research has been designed using a topical literature review and a case study. The practical implications
include a discussion and guidelines for designing partnerships under high uncertainty and limited resources.
Chapter 3
Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand………………………………………………………………. 31
Ruth Banomyong, Thammasat University, Thailand
Apichat Sodapang, Chiangmai University, Thailand
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a framework for the development of relief supply chain systems. An illustrative case study is presented in order to help relief supply chain decision makers in
their relief supply chain planning process. Developing simulation models to test proposed relief supply
chain response plans is much less risky than actually waiting for another disaster to happen and test the
proposed relief supply chain model in a real life situation. The simulated outcome can then be used to
refine the developed relief supply chain response model.
Chapter 4
Humanitarian Aid Logistics: The Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared…………………………….. 45
Anthony Beresford, Cardiff University, UK
Stephen Pettit, Cardiff University, UK
This chapter contrasts the response to the Wenchuan earthquake (May 2008) which took place in a
landlocked region of China with that of the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which as an island nation,
theoretically easily accessible to external aid provision via air or sea. In the initial period following the
Wenchuan earthquake, the response was wholly internal, as a detailed needs assessment was carried
out. Once the Chinese authorities had established the scale of response required, international assistance
was quickly allowed into the country. Several multimodal solutions were devised to minimize the risk
of supply breakdown. Haiti required substantial external aid and logistics support, but severe organizational and infrastructural weaknesses rendered the supply chain extremely vulnerable locally. This
translated to a mismatch between the volume of aid supplied and logistics capability, highlighting the
importance of ‘last-mile’ distribution management. The two earthquakes posed extreme challenges to
the logistics operations, though both required a mix of military and non-military input into the logistics
response. Nonetheless, in each case the non-standard logistics solutions which were devised broadly
met the requirements for effective aid distribution in extreme environments.
Chapter 5
The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain
Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa…………………………………………………………. 68
David H. Taylor, Sheffield, UK
The study reported in this chapter was commissioned in 2009 by the charity ‘Advance Aid’ in order to
provide an independent evaluation to compare conventional methods of supplying humanitarian aid products to Africa from outside the continent, with a proposed model of local manufacture and pre-positioned
stocks. The evaluation was carried out using ‘value chain analysis’ techniques based on ‘lean’ concepts
to provide a strategic evaluation of alternative supply models. The findings show that a system of local
manufacturing and pre-positioned stockholding would offer significant advantages over conventional
humanitarian supply chains in terms of responsiveness, risk of disruption and carbon footprint, and that
delivered costs would be similar to or significantly better than current non-African supply options. Local manufacturing would also have important benefits in terms of creating employment and economic
growth, which in the long run would help African states to mitigate and/or respond to future disasters
and thus become less dependent on external aid.
Chapter 6
Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects…………….. 90
Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Aristides Matopoulos, University of Macedonia, Greece
Odran Hayes, European Agency for Reconstruction, Ireland
Post-disaster housing reconstruction projects face several challenges. Resources and material supplies
are often scarce, several and different types of organizations are involved, and projects must be completed as quickly as possible to foster recovery. Within this context, the chapter aims to increase the
understanding of relief supply chain design in reconstruction. In addition, the chapter is introducing
a community based and beneficiary perspective to relief supply chains by evaluating the implications
of local components for supply chain design in reconstruction. This is achieved through the means of
secondary data analysis based on the evaluation reports of two major housing reconstruction projects
that took place in Europe the last decade. A comparative analysis of the organizational designs of these
projects highlights the ways in which users can be involved. The performance of reconstruction supply
chains seems to depend to a large extent on the way beneficiaries are integrated in supply chain design
impacting positively on the effectiveness of reconstruction supply chains.
Chapter 7
Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing……………………………. 103
Per Skoglund, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
Susanne Hertz, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
This case study explores the Swedish armed forces’ sourcing from local suppliers in the area of the
peacekeeping operation in Liberia. The paper discusses why, what, and how the Swedish armed forces
develop local sourcing. For the study, a theoretical framework was developed with an industrial network
perspective based on three cornerstones: supplier buyer relation development, internationalization, and
finally, souring and business development in a war-torn country. The results of the study show that both
implicit and explicit reasons to source locally exist. Every operation is unique, and therefore the sourcing
needs to be tailored for each operation. Local sourcing was developed in the country based on existing
needs and when opportunities arose. Theoretically, new insights of differences between business relations in military operations and normal business to business relations were gained. Practically, this study
illustrates the importance to develop and diversify sourcing in international operations.
Chapter 8
Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains……………………………………………………………… 123
Elizabeth Barber, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy,
Australia
The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the multitude of activities that military logisticians can
provide throughout the various stages in relief supply chains. Most military joint doctrine identifies humanitarian assistance (HA) as one of the “Military Operations Other Than War” (MOOTW) that military
personnel are trained to undertake. Part of this HA involves contributing to humanitarian supply chains
and logistics management. The supply chain management processes, physical flows, as well as associated
information and financial systems form part of the military contributions that play an important role in
the relief supply chain. The main roles of the military to relief supply chains include security and protection, distribution, and engineering. Examples of these key contributions will be provided in this chapter.
Chapter 9
Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief……………………….. 147
Graham Heaslip, National University of Ireland – Maynooth, Ireland
The term civil military coordination (CIMIC) suggests the seamless division of labor between aid workers and international military forces. The media coverage from crises such as New Orleans, Kosovo, the
tsunami in Asia, Pakistan, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Chad ,and more recently Haiti, showing humanitarian
organizations distributing food and medicines under the protection of military forces, or aid workers and
military working together to construct refugee camps, set up field hospitals, provide emergency water
and sanitation, et cetera, has heightened the expectation of a smooth interaction. Due to fundamental
differences between international military forces, humanitarian and development organizations in terms
of the principles and doctrines guiding their work, their agendas, operating styles, and roles, the area
of civil military coordination in disaster relief has proven to be more difficult than other interagency
relationships. This chapter will identify the many factors that render integration and collaboration problematic between diverse organizations, and especially so between civilian and military agencies. The
chapter will conclude with proposals to improve CIMIC within disaster relief.
Chapter 10
Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks……………………………………… 173
Peter Tatham, Griffith University, Australia
Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Although there is a vast body of academic and practitioner literature championing the importance of trust
in long-term business relationships, relatively little has been written which discusses the development
and maintenance of trust in networks that are formed at short notice and that often operate for a limited
period of time. Some models of trust and trusting behavior in such “hastily formed relief networks”
(HFRN) do exist , however, and the aim of this chapter is to consider the theoretical application of one
of the most prominent examples –known as “swift trust” – to a post-disaster humanitarian logistics
scenario. Presented from the perspective of a HFRN, the chapter presents a discussion of the practical
application of the swift trust model.
Chapter 11
A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain…………………………………………………………. 196
Joseph Sarkis, Clark University, USA
Karen M. Spens, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Relief supply chain (SC) management is a relatively unexplored field. In this field, practitioners have
shown some interest in greening practices, but little practical or academic literature exists to help provide insights into combining the two fields. Adoption of green SC principles in the relief SC requires a
systematic study of existing barriers in order to remove these barriers and allow introduction of green
practices. The aim of this chapter is to explore barriers to implementation of green practices in the relief
SC. Expert opinions and literature from humanitarian logistics and green supply chain management are
used to establish a list of ba…
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