Data Collection Phase of the Project Cycle Short Essay 1. Read the following article assigned to your group ( Group 3: “A Qualitative Study of Barriers to

Data Collection Phase of the Project Cycle Short Essay 1. Read the following article assigned to your group ( Group 3: “A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi”). 2. Read it thoroughly, identifying the main concepts explored during the class, such as vulnerability, cultural competency and others related. 3. Write a short essay (1,000 words max. Plus references, double space) answering the following questions:
Having learned about the research cycle (design, data collection, implementation, and evaluation), identify and explain the phase of the project cycle in which your article is focused on.
How is culturally relevant information incorporated in this case? Use chapter 11 in Edberg as reference for this question.
How are the principles of cultural competency studied in Module 1 and Chapter 12 in Edberg’s book expressed in this case? Explain.
Properly cite and annex your references using APA. Power points do not need to be cited. Research Basic Methods: ?Recording
and Analyzing Qualitative Data.
Class IHS 2235 – Module 5 – Theme 3
Goal
? Examine the role of culture in program
planning.
BASIC METHODS: ETHNOGRAPHY,
PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION
? Goal is to spend time in group or setting of
interest in order to understand how behavior,
beliefs, social structures and cultural
representations (e.g., sayings, symbols,
rituals, art, media) fit together as they
naturally occur.
BASIC METHODS: ETHNOGRAPHY,
PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION PROCESS
? Establish a working, trusting relationship.
? Observe everyday practices and the relationships between
activities – in their natural setting.
? Observe the integration (or not) between activities, beliefs,
values.
? Observe social structures (e.g., families, leaders, healers) and
relationship to activities/beliefs.
? Can collect a variety of in-depth data, including interviews,
video, mapping, and quantitative data as needed.
BASIC METHODS: ETHNOGRAPHY,
PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION
• For public health/health promotion,
ethnography and participant-observation usually
employed in a limited context, and with limited
time.
• Can still be very useful:
– To understand the functioning of a community coalition
– On a site visit for a health promotion project evaluation, to
understand the activities conducted by the project and
their impact
BASIC METHODS: ETHNOGRAPHY,
PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION
• Can still be very useful:
– Observation, to understand cross-cultural
healing practices in context.
– Observation, interviews, mapping — to
understand the reception of a prevention
practice or technology disseminated by
community outreach workers.
BASIC METHODS: INTERVIEWS AND
FOCUS GROUPS
? Interviewing is the “meat and potatoes” of qualitative
research. There are several different types of interviews.
? Unlike survey interviews, qualitative interviews have an openended response format – because the goal is to elicit
information deemed important by the respondent, to allow
for follow-up, and to obtain full descriptive responses.
? Interview may change over time as you learn from previous
interviews.
? Respondent interpretation of events – subjectivity – is
important.
BASIC METHODS: TYPES OF
INTERVIEWS
? Informal/unstructured interviews: Used when you have
little advance information. General, informal, designed to
establish leads for follow-up.
? Semi-structured interviews: Used when you have a base
of information to work from, or have specific topics to
cover. More systematic. Use an interview guide to
conduct interview – but responses open ended.
BASIC METHODS: TYPES OF
INTERVIEWS
? Focus groups: Variation of semi-structured interview
format, but with a group (representing a specified
population segment), not an individual. Has benefits and
drawbacks, and group dynamics must be managed.
? Rapid assessment strategies: Used when a basic
understanding of a problem is necessary in a short
period of time. Typically employs a relatively brief
combination of interviews (with key informants), focus
groups, observation, other techniques.
OTHER BASIC METHODS
? Other interview types: Used for more specialized
purposes – includes life history interviews and social
network interviews.
? Grounded theory interviewing techniques: To obtain
systematic data on the way respondents categorize
knowledge (such as in ethnomedical systems) or
make decisions. Techniques include “free-listing”
and different ways of sorting and organizing data
from free lists.
ANALYSIS
? Goal of most qualitative analysis is to find
themes and patterns with respect to beliefs,
knowledge systems, practices of a particular
group, in context.
? Most basic analysis involves coding of text data
from interviews, observations. There are
multiple software packages now available for
this purpose.
ANALYSIS
? Coding involves marking and storing text segments
that are about a particular topic, then analyzing all
the text segments under each topic for common
themes/patterns.
? Other analyses include mapping social networks and
relationships, documenting life or event sequences,
identifying decision patterns (as in health behavior
decisions).

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