PMGT430 Network Diagram (CPM): The Critical Path Method DETAILS: This activity is designed to help you better understand the Critical Path Method (CPM), Ne

PMGT430 Network Diagram (CPM): The Critical Path Method DETAILS: This activity is designed to help you better understand the Critical Path Method (CPM), Network Diagrams, the Forward and the Backward Pass, the Critical Path, and Slack or Float. BEFORE you even begin this assignment, you should carefully review required reading/viewing materials and conduct your own research on the topics.

ASSUMPTIONS: For this exercise, assume that the numbers represent days and the letters represent activities. We are also going to use the zero time, which means that you start at time = 0 and when you finish an activity, the subsequent activity starts on the same day, so do not add one for early starts of successor activities. For example, suppose activity A takes 2 days and is followed by activity B, activity B takes 3 days and is followed by activity C, and activity C takes 1 day. For forward pass:

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Activity A begins on day 0 and ends on day 2.

Activity B begins on day 2 and ends on day 5.

Activity C begins on day 5 and ends on day 6.

REQUIRED ACTIONS:

Part 1:

Please work through the network diagram and critical path activity by clicking on the following link: critical-path-exercises-form.pdf
Follow the directions within the activity to complete the following: (1) determine and list all paths in the network diagram, (2) calculate the critical path by conducting a “forward pass,” (3) determine the total slack or float by conducting a “backward pass.”
Use the “zero” start date for your initial start and when moving from one activity to the next (see “ASSUMPTIONS” above). When going from the EF of one activity to the ES of the next, do NOT add “1” to the date. Same for the backward pass.

Part 2:

Please reply to the ALL of the questions listed below in the “QUESTIONS” section.
Create an MS Word, MS PowerPoint, or Acrobat pdf document and attach it.
You MUST cite at least one resource in APA style other than your required or optional reading/viewing resources.

After completion of the exercises, save your responses as a pdf file (to your desktop or other storage location) that you will then attach in the Assignment 1.3 for submission.

QUESTIONS/TOPICS TO RESPOND TO:

What does the critical path signify? Are the activities on this path more important than those on non-critical paths?
Describe the Critical Path Method (CPM) including the major components of this method. Are there other ways besides the CPM to sequence your work packages and activities – please describe?
What is the difference in total float and free float? Can you have negative float on the critical path? If so, what would this signify? If not, why not?
Describe a “forward pass” and a “backward” pass in the context of the CPM.
Describe the four types of dependencies and give an example of the most common type. Running head: TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
What is the Impact of Technology in Nursing Practice?
Billeto R. McGee
Grantham University
CA499 – Professional Strategies
February 16, 2019
1
TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
2
What is the Impact of Technology in Nursing Practice?
Introduction
In the modern world, technology has become the tool towards effective service delivery
and production of goods. While technology may seem to have initiated and tremendously change
the nursing practice, it is significant to research on the impacts in this field thoroughly. In the
recent few decades, some health practitioners had some negative views towards the
implementation of Electronic Health Records. However, it is apparent that many organizations
have embraced the technology, mainly because of the benefits the facilities are able to enjoy with
the implementation of the Electronic Health Registers. It is apparent that nursing practice is
somewhat the backbone of the health facilities from a broader perspective. Therefore, any
improvement on the nursing practice dramatically improves the overall service delivery and
image of the health facility. In nursing practice, technology has enhanced communication, nurse
education, and research.
Problem Statement
Most of the sectors and professionals across the world are leveraging on technology for
cost-cutting, efficiency and overall performance among other benefits. It is important to note that
the use of technology is capable of drastically reducing the cost of providing healthcare and
improving the services by the nurse practitioners. How are the nurse practitioners leveraging
technology?
TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
3
Purpose of the study
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the various ways the technology has
changed the nurse practice. To establish this, this study examines the different areas that the
nurse practitioners are engaging technology in their endeavors to providing high quality and
timely healthcare to eradicate the health challenges facing the modern society (Elgin & Bergero,
2015). As such, this research proposal purposes to determine the help of various technological
advancements towards assisting the nurse practitioners including the implementation of the
Electronic Health Records, use of internet in research, big data and cloud computing for easy
access of records and communication between the nurses and patients.
Research question
For the realization of the above-stated purpose, this research proposal responds to the
question of what are the impacts of technology in nursing practice. It is notable that nurse
practitioners like other professionals are using technology. In this regard, this research proposal
seeks to identify the various benefits technology has influenced in nurse practice or why the
nurse practitioners should continue using technology?
The significance of the Study
The study on the impacts of technology in the nurse practice field is very significant and
in different ways. Firstly, this study shall determine the importance of leveraging technology in
nurse practice towards minimizing or eradicating the common problem of burnouts among the
nurse practitioners. It is also important to note that the study shall examine the various changes
and benefits that the different technological improvements such as the Electronic Health Records
TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
4
have influenced in the nurse practice (Lavin, Harper & Barr, 2015). For instance, recent research
finds that the use of EHRs has drastically reduced the cost of running healthcare facilities. Of
importance, the Electronic health records have enabled ease of access of the patient records by
the nurses.
The latter shows that the nurses are less likely to have the burnouts with the
implementation of the EHRs. Traditionally, the nurses used to peruse through the manual
documents to determine the patients’ records regardless of the length of the queues. With the
EHRs, nurses are able to access the full details of the patients within seconds (Weaver, Delaney,
Weber & Carr, 2016). Therefore, the technology that has brought HER has greatly benefited the
nurses in record keeping a situation that influences efficiency in health care facilities thus
promoting the image of facilities while ensuring the good health of the communities they serve.
As observed, EHRs enables the nurse practitioners to meet their objectives at a lower cost and
using less energy. In fact, the systems allows the nurse practitioners to serve more clients within
a limited time (Piscotty, Kalisch & Gracey‐Thomas, 2015). However, as nurses are able to serve
more clients, they need more storage space for the storage of the increasing number of the
patients’ data. This study will also help to determine what procedures or technological strategies
are the nurse practitioners employing to improve storage facilities to avoid system downtimes
and eventual failures of the entire system. From this perspective, this research proposal
endeavors to establish the extent to which the nurse practitioners are leveraging cloud computing
to improve the storage of the patient’s data. The increased data stored provides a pool of
information that nurse practitioners can use in their research to develop other interventions for
different health problems.
TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
5
Conclusion
This study proposal determines that the use of technology in the health care sector has
great impacts on the nurse practice. Notably, the technology has influenced the proper and easier
method of record keeping that permits improved service the people thus improved health in the
community. Additionally, the technology has enhanced communication among the nurse
practitioners and physicians for efficiency. Finally, the technology has greatly influenced
research for the realization of different intervention strategies through the big data.
TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
6
References
Elgin, K. H., & Bergero, C. (2015). Technology and the Bedside Nurse: an exploration and
review of implications for practice. Nursing Clinics, 50(2), 227-239.
Lavin, M. A., Harper, E., & Barr, N. (2015). Health information technology, patient safety, and
professional nursing care documentation in acute care settings. Online J Issues Nurs,
20(6).
Piscotty, R. J., Kalisch, B., & Gracey‐Thomas, A. (2015). Impact of healthcare information
technology on nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(4), 287-293.
Weaver, C., Delaney, C., Weber, P., & Carr, R. (2016). Nursing and informatics for the 21st
century: an international look at practice, education, and EHR trends. HIMSS
Publishing.
Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
Annotated Bibliography on the Impacts of Technology in Nursing Practice
Billeto R. McGee
Grantham University
CA499 – Professional Strategies
February 20, 2019
1
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
2
Annotated Bibliography on the Impacts of Technology in Nursing Practice
Doswell, W. M., Braxter, B., Dabbs, A. D., Nilsen, W., & Klem, M. L. (2013). mHealth:
Technology for nursing practice, education, and research. J Nurs Educ Pract, 3(10),
99.
The main aim of this article is to discuss the significance of mHealth in education,
research as well as nursing practice. Also, the report purposes to illustrate the ongoing mHealth
program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing. The articles find that mHealth has
played a significant role in enhancing nursing practice in offering health care to clients in this era
of information technology. The authors also claim that the Mobile Health is a rapidly developing
field that is continuously providing patient education, increase patient safety, enhance treatment
and prevent illnesses. This technology is not beneficial to patient alone but enhances
communication between healthcare practitioners situated close and far distances geographically.
This source is different from others because it majors on one aspect (mHealth or mobile health)
of healthcare technology as opposed to the other sources that discusses IT as a whole. This
source will be helpful to my research because it provides evidence-based findings.
Elgin, K. H., & Bergero, C. (2015). Technology and the Bedside Nurse: an exploration and
review of implications for practice. Nursing Clinics, 50(2), 227-239.
This source focuses on reviewing the opportunities and problems in the correlation
between bedside nursing and modern technology. The author claims that health technology
makes nurse practitioners to incorporate and master a vast range of devices, tools, and methods
of monitoring patient status. Also, the findings indicate that the increasing amount of open
innovation has influenced bedside nurses. The connection between modern technology and
bedside nursing is desirable. This source has similarity with other sources that I will use in the
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
3
sense that they have considered technology to have a positive relationship with bedside nursing.
This source will help me in my research because I will draw various examples of how
technologies work in nursing to my own research. As a matter of fact, I will require a lot of
information regarding the positive and negative impacts of using modern technology in bedside
nursing in completing my research paper. Therefore, I deem this source to be significant and
relevant to my research topic.
Huston, C. (2013). The impact of emerging technology on nursing care: warp speed ahead.
The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(2).
In this publication, the author presents seven emerging technologies that are thought to
alter the nurse practices. It also discusses the skills sets that nurse practitioners will need and four
challenges leadership in healthcare setting will face in incorporating these innovations. Precisely,
the author finds that the emerging technology will have positive changes in nursing practice and
at the same time pose challenges on health care facilities regarding their implementation. For
instance, the leadership of various health care facilities is expected to encounter the issues of
finance shortages bearing in mind that implementing modern technologies is a process that
requires huge investments. Additionally, leaders may fall short of the necessary knowledge and
skills to run these technologies. Remember that not only leaders will have a problem with these
technologies, but patients will have a problem with understanding how these innovations are
being used to diagnose their diseases. This source will guide me from two fronts; positive and
negative impacts of emerging technologies on nursing practice.
Lavin, M. A., Harper, E., & Barr, N. (2015). Health information technology, patient safety,
and professional nursing care documentation in acute care settings. Online J Issues
Nurs, 20(6).
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
4
This publication is a description of the opinions of nurse practitioners shared by members
of the Nursing Practice Committee of the Missouri Nurses Association. This aspect encourages
nurse practitioners to bring issues associated with electronic health record (EHR) to the table
when crucial decisions related to information technology are made. Furthermore, this aspect
motivates nurse practitioners to comply with the code of ethics whenever they are discharging
their duties. Notwithstanding that the technology stimulates them to go for further training in
order to keep themselves updated accordingly and be able to use the new technological devices
and tools. The author finds various issues related to nursing which included EHR efficiency and
medication safety among others. This article agrees with the others on one thing; technology
increases efficiency and effectiveness in an electronic health record system. I will draw credible
and valid information concerning the relationship between EHR and technology from this
source.
Piscotty, R. J., Kalisch, B., & Gracey‐Thomas, A. (2015). Impact of healthcare information
technology on nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(4), 287-293.
This article is a report on the additional mediation outcomes from descriptive crosssectional research. It aims at examining if nurse practitioners’ perception of the influence of
health care IT on their work mediates the association amongst electronic nursing care reminder
utilization and missed nursing care. The research deployed a detailed design and MISSCARE
Survey as the methodology. The findings indicate that the perceptions of the influence of health
care IT has an impact on the use of nursing care reminder and the rate of missed nursing care.
This article differs from the rest because it fails to indicate if the effect of IT on missed nursing
care is positive or negative. The results are significant to the improvement of healthcare
technology in my research as I will be able to keep in mind the perception concerning the effects
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
5
of IT within this field. I recommend this source to students pursuing degrees and undergraduates
courses.
Weaver, C., Delaney, C., Weber, P., &Carr, R. (2016). Nursing and informatics for the 21st
century: an international look at practice, education, and EHR trends. HIMSS
Publishing.
This book conveys details acquired from valid, reliable and credible sources. The source
documents a significant historical change evident in nursing practice, connected to the emerge of
electronic health record (EHR), health policies, as well as national strategies happening globally.
The book uses 30 case studies drawn from reliable and incredible innovative works occurring
across the universe. This source finds a connection between health care technology and these
historical shifts. Although this source is more similar to the other sources presented in this paper,
it differs in its methodology because it uses case studies contrary to the other sources. I will use
this source because it will allow me to have a comparison across industrials, developing and
developed countries. Besides, I consider this book to be valid and reliable on the bases that
writers have integrated examples, data and statistics from reputable sources to support its
argument. Moreover, the book is written in simple English that is easier to be understood by the
readers.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY IN NURSING
Reference
Robinson, Oliver C., and Jonathan A. Smith. “A case study of pre-midlife crisis: An
extraordinary transformational episode in ordinary life.” University of Huddersfield,
2010. 145-157.
Setiya, K. (2014). The midlife crisis. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Publishing, University of
Michigan Library.
Stuart, J. A., Maddalena, L. A., Merilovich, M., & Robb, E. L. (2014). A midlife crisis for
the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging. Longevity & healthspan, 3(1), 4.
Doswell, W. M., Braxter, B., Dabbs, A. D., Nilsen, W., & Klem, M. L. (2013). mHealth:
Technology for nursing practice, education, and research. J Nurs Educ Pract, 3(10), 99.
Elgin, K. H., & Bergero, C. (2015). Technology and the Bedside Nurse: an exploration and
review of implications for practice. Nursing Clinics, 50(2), 227-239.
Huston, C. (2013). The impact of emerging technology on nursing care: warp speed ahead.
The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(2).
6

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