CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Due to the evolution of nature, technology is also evolving into sophisticated way but simplifying life. Long ago learning was used to be done under a tree but now it’s behind closed doors. Chemistry is a very practical subject which is used in everyday life by people. It might be voluntary or involuntary. It is also considered as a difficult because it has multi-levels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Theories by blooms taxonomy shows that chemistry can be enjoyed and be applied in more than one subject as long as principles are taught effectively. Subjects such as biology, geology, and agriculture require an understanding of chemistry. Yet some of the students see chemistry as a difficult (Bauer, 2008; Sirhan, 2007) subject that is complicated and confusing. Some of them fear they will not be successful in the subject. ‘If it is combined with e-learning, learners are more fascinated and eager to learn. This research serves to note the impact of blooms taxonomy and e-learning in teaching and learning of chemistry. The science content focuses on knowledge of discipline while technology and vocational orientation help to improve the scientist’s process skills (Lebeaume, 2004). The application of teaching and learning methods that provides deep and active learning and creativity in learners is the emphasis of the educational system of the present age. The learning of general chemistry is possible in other environments other than the school laboratories. These also mean laboratories with electronic gadgets. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In junior grades learners tend to dislike science because of its long and drawing topics. Although for some it is a very interesting subject. At advanced level it is a matter of choice, though some choose it for prestigious reasons and fail in the long run. Because they no longer see its need in their future (Buis, 2016). For those with passion, they lack practical basic skills. The combination of these factors leads to an unwillingness to invest time or effort in learning the chemistry subject matter (Bauer, 2008). This also means time wasted at school. The researcher noted that the learners are good at writing their theoretical questions unlike when it comes to practical questions. Learners view chemistry as cheap when looking at the short syllabus. Chemistry is a very short syllabus but with a lot of practical’s to be done. Learners tend not to with its four components, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and applied chemistry. Some of the learners have fear of the unknown when they are doing their practicals; some are just hands on. Chemistry is everyday life. Learners tend to forget that the practical’s which are done in the laboratory they interact with them in their daily environments. Students interact with chemistry at the macroscopic level every day when cooking, cleaning, and driving cars (Johnstone, 1982; Bauis, 2016). Natural some learners have the ability to interpret a question whilst some have fear to break the apparatus or fear of the unknown. Some tend to confuse words which they use in vernacular and those that are used in chemistry subjects. An obstacle to learning at this level is the vocabulary used to describe matter. Some terms and definitions have different meanings when used in day-to-day language when compared to scientific language (Garnett et al., 1995; Nakhleh, 1992; Tabor, 2013, Bauis. 2016). Multiple representations in chemistry, using water as an example. Erlina, Erlina & Cane, Chris & Williams, Dylan.(2018). They are created to help students understand abstract ideas and to decrease the cognitive demand of new information (Orgill & Crippen). Chemistry uses certain formalisms when representing sub-micro particles and their interactions. If the students are not familiar with the format of these representations, the images meant to help students will instead increase the cognitive demand (Madden, Jones, & Rahm, 2010; Orgill & Crippen). The researcher also noted that, there is introduction of fear when learner are introduced to science in their junior grades they are told, ‘ if you break you buy,’ so this gives learners less room to find their own strength. Due to some radiation of some elements, some of the practicals need the teacher to apply field trips in order to cater for the understanding of the learners. The researcher also notified that the learners who were very hesitant in the laboratory the time of doing practicals. Some lack understanding in their theory in order to apply practically vice versa., yet practical chemistry is the major. A very few students have electronic gadgets which can enable them to do presentations. This is a disadvantage to the learners who do not possess a laptop, if given a presentation which needs to be elaborated by electronics. So in order to save themselves these learners tend to hind away or do not presentations and give lame excuses because they can’t do it. Traditional education helped learners to go and read many books but with the introduction of internet and everything being found on Google scholar learners tends to just comply without understanding the concepts. To achieve this objective, the traditional teaching methods do not have the required effectiveness, but implementation of e-learning in teaching and learning process could be a want to realize this goal ( Zare et al.,2014). The researcher seeks to find ways of teaching applying bloom’s taxonomy with e-learning due modernization. Also due to the pandemic of the corona various, e-learning is becoming the most effective way of learning. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The failure of learners to understand the concepts of chemistry and its applicability. They do not understand it either traditionally or the evolution of e-learning with the aspects they already know. The learners failed to apply the theoretical lessons in their practicals. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This is to enable: learners to enjoy chemistry as a subject learners to appreciate chemistry and be able to be problem solvers Learners to be equipped in this modernized world. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To demonstrate blooms taxonomy in teaching and learning of chemistry at advanced level To illustrate the impact of e-learning in relation to blooms taxonomy theory in teaching and learning of chemistry at advanced level To find out if the use of chemistry practicals in teaching and learning develops scientific skills for problem solving RESEARCH QUESTIONS How does blooms taxonomy helps teaching and learning of advanced chemistry. What is the impact of e-learning in relation to bloom taxonomy in teaching and learning of chemistry. Why it is difficult for learners to implement what has been taught in class into their lives. How much time do learners spend doing chemistry practicals in a cycle. SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study was limited to one school, which is Vainona High School, situated in Borrowdale west. It is a mixed government high school and focused on chemistry advanced level students. LIMITATIONS The researcher was limited on her research as there was little time of interaction with the learners. The researcher was more of a part-time teaching so some of the observation she requires might not be eluded. Due to Covid 19 some the learners where not coming to school. DELIMITATIONS The researcher focused on 12 learners in advanced level in their final year. DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS Bloom’s taxonomy used to design course content and to create assessments that test for the course objectives Chemistry as that which treats of the modes of manufacturing the products of chemistry that is useful in arts, of their application to economical purpose, and of the conditions essential in their best use. E- Learning refers to the use of systems of electronic education such as computer, internet, multimedia disks, electronic magazines, virtual newscasts and whose purposes are to reduce time and expenses and achieve better, faster, and easier learning. Practical work as hands-on experiences which prompts thinking about the world we live. Traditional cultural teaching Laboratory is an indispensable organ of the school if effective teaching and learning of the science subjects are to be achieved. Electronic gadgets these are smart phones used by the learners to conduct lessons by their teacher SUMMARY This chapter was giving emphasis on the reasons why the researcher decided to partake for this research and signifies its importance. The chapter has covered the background of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, research objectives, research questions, and scope of the study, limitations and delimitation. Important terms used have been defined. CHAPTER TWO INTRODUCTION Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevel of knowledge with each level presenting challenge in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Learning is enhanced in different learning environments such as in classroom, e-learning or blended learning (Meri, 2015). This study was to see how learners interact in those environments. Together with the flexibility, anytime and anywhere access can be offered to learners, which is the substantial advantage of e-learning environments rather than in classroom-based learning environments (Rhode, 2009).This interaction will help the researcher to see the best which can be given to a chemistry learner in order to achieve the best grades and help interact with their environment. This chapter sets to look into the reviews of other scholars on the e-learning and bloom taxonomy on the learning of the children in chemistry. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (Bandura,1997) states that children learn to behave morally through observing and imitating adults who demonstrate appropriate behavior. The theory also encompasses motivation. The learners should remember what had been paid attention to ,for example good and valuable reasons to imitate and physical capabilities. Therefore, it is very important for the learners to execute various skills appropriate to learners and also give correct coaching points. CHEMISTRY IS PRAGMATIC Learning is the interaction between the teacher and the learner in order to achieve objectives set for the lesson. As illustrated in (Laurillard’s, 2012) conversational framework, learning takes place by means of the interaction between the teacher and learner in blended or classroom-based learning environments. The classroom environment emphasizes auditory and visual Learning styles. The laboratory environment emphasizes the kinesthetic learning, and the textbook and homework environment accentuates the reading and writing learning style (Bauis, 2016). Students are able to have hands-on experiences, operate in small groups, and develop their cognitive skills through writing lab reports (Tsui, 2002).This allows the learner or give the room to the learner to ask questions and be answered whilst observing the teaching. Cognitive acceleration through science education lessons usually has four parts. The first part is to introduce the definitions and variables of the lesson. Next, students explore or experiment with concrete models representing the concepts of the lesson (Ncube, J., 2007). Then, a challenge to their perceptions of the experimental results of their experiments is given, their thoughts in a coherent manner, report their data in the correct format, and use their conceptual understanding to produce a meaningful and rational discussion (Johnstone, 1983; Bauis, 2016). This challenges their prior knowledge and personal theories. Students work in small groups, which allow them to discuss scientific theories (Garnett et al., 1995; Bausi, 2016) to explain the conflict between their observed results and the challenge to their observations through working problems and class discussions. This promotes creativity as they will be enabling their creativity thinking. Creative thinking means “ability to think about things in new and unusual ways and achieve unique solutions to problems” (Santrock, 2004) PRACTICAL WORK (Lunetta,Hofstein and clough 2007), defines practical work as hands-on experiences which prompts thinking about the world we live. This allows learners to be able to use their practicals skill in the world. As supported by free dictionary, defines practical chemistry as that which treats of the modes of manufacturing the products of chemistry that are useful in arts, of their application to economical purpose, and of the conditions essential in their best use. Also suggest that practical work means task in which students observe or manipulating real objects or materials themselves individually or as a group by witnessing teacher demonstration. (Millar, 2004). From these definitions, it shows that there is involvement of learners during teaching and learning and some of the practicals are their day to day lives. The presence of the teacher during the practical work motivates the learners. It also gives them the opportunity to ask the questions concerning the theoretical topic in line with the practical. This is supported by (Newton,2009) who said that a teacher who make effective use of practical work and experiments often find that students learn better. Through practical work teaching is enhanced and becomes more interesting both for the teacher and the learner. He continues to say learners are motivated and would want to know more about the experiment which they would have done. This enables them to be critical thinkers. THE PURPOSE OF PRACTICAL WORK The aims of the programmed are to improve the: clarity of the learning outcomes associated with practical work; effectiveness and impact of the practical work; sustainability of this approach for ongoing improvements; quality rather than the quantity of practical work used. (Woodley, 2009) THE PURPOSE OF CHEMISTRY OUTREACH Learner are losing interest in the chemistry subject at advanced level, thereby reduction in the number of students progressing to tertiary study ( Cooper, Cowie, & Jones, 2010). Since some of the experiments cannot be conducted in the school laboratory, learners are motivated by outreaches. Researchers believe that majority of high school students have made up their minds concerning the sciences (Flynn, 2005); but that secondary science student learning can be improved through outreach programs ( Thomas,2012). Piaget argued knowledge is constructed when learners organize their experiences with their physical world to fit into pre-existing mental structures. Incorporation of new knowledge is done through the cognitive structures of assimilation and accommodation (Bodner, 1986; Bauis, 2016). A series of learning experiences fostered an increase in interest and learning in science in middle school (Howitt, Lewis,&Waugh, 2009)Students with good quality- motivational orientation improved significantly better in their basic concepts of visible spectrometry by learning within the hands-on approach than their schoolmates with poor quantity- motivational orientation ( Jurisevic, Vrtacnik, Kwaiatkowshi, &Gros, 2012). Knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learner (Bodner, Klobuchar, & Geelan, 2001; Bauis, 2016). Conceptions about natural occurrences are developed through interactions with the physical environment. Meaning is constructed by students interpreting the new knowledge through their pre-existing frameworks (Garnett, Garnett, & Hackling, 1995; Bauis, 2016). Conceptual change occurs when a student’s existing conceptions are challenged by new information leading to accommodation (Garnett et al., 1995;2016). E-LEARNING In teaching and learning process, learning has been transformed to another level by e-learning. Digital technologies such as computers, mobile and the internet have been visualised as powerful teaching tools for optimizing learning outcomes of learners. E-learning is also defined (Wanting et al, 2000) as acquisition of the disseminated knowledge using electronic devices. It can be said that e-learning refers to the use of systems of electronic education such as computer, internet, multimedia disks, electronic magazines, virtual newscasts, and whose purposes are to reduce time and expenses and achieve better, faster, and easier learning (Zare et al, 2014). This evolution of technological devices has enabled the learner and the teacher to get more free time. E-learning can promote complex thinking for learner’s creative thinking. For example, (Wheeler; Waiter; Bromfield Wheeler, 2002) pointed out that the creativity of students is dramatically increased when using computer-based learning environments . ONLINE WORK It provides immediate results. Immediate feedback is beneficial regardless of learning situation (Buzzetto-More & Ukoha, 2009). The researcher also want to assess her learner if online learning helps them. This is because through her research she has noted that certain scholars has approved it. A survey created to measure students’ attitudes toward online homework indicates that students felt online homework promotes more consistent and beneficial study habits by increasing the amount and frequency of studying and reducing cramming for exams. Students felt online homework was worth the effort, relevant to the material presented in class, and challenging (Richards-Babb et al., 2011). BLOOM’S TAXONOMY In Bloom’s taxonomy, there are six levels of skills ranked in order from the most basic to the most complex (Kelly. M, 2020). It is used to design course content and to create assessments that test for the course objectives (santa barbara city college student learning outcomes project,2005). Each level of skill is associated with a verb, as learning is an action. The questions asked in class whether written as an assignment and test are pulled from all levels of the taxonomy pyramid ( Kelly. M, 2020). Objective assessments ( multiple-choice, matching, and filling in the blank) tend to focus only on the two lowest levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: remembering and understanding ( Kelly. M, 2020). Subjective assessments (essay responses, experiments, portfolios, performances) tend to measure the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating( Kelly. M, 2020). It is a simple structure scales from the easier to more difficult skills for scaffolding. The learners should master lower level of knowledge chemistry in their junior before attempting higher level of learning chemistry objective (Ncube, J., 2004). This means Complex schemas are built by combining lower-level schemes into higher-level ones (Buis, H.J., 2016). According to the theory, learners should have an understanding of their theory which is basic so that they will be able to master the other level of doing practicals. One of high-level thinking skill needed to support students’ academic success in the 21st century is the analytical thinking ability ( Irwanto, Rohaeti, E., 2016). CLASSIFICATION OF QUESTION DIFFICULTY Chemistry exam questions could be sorted into each of the six classifications of Bloom (Colletta & Chiappetta, 1989; Gronlund, 1995). During analysis of the questions, the following criteria were used. 1.- Knowledge. Questions on the knowledge level require the students to remember facts they have already learned and recall these as they have been learned. Aim: To be able to define the concept of compound. Question: Can you define what a compound is? 2.-Comprehension. Students must be able to rephrase information using their own statements and translate knowledge into new context and interpret graphs, tables, charts and cartoons. Aim: To be able to explain the variation of the electron affinity of the elements. Question: Explain how the electron affinity of the elements varies in the periodic table. 3- Application. Students are required to identify the relevant information and rules to arrive at a solution and solve problems using known algorithms. Aim: To be able to calculate the pressure of each gas in a mixture in a closed vessel. Question: What is the partial pressure of each gas in a mixture that contains 40 g He, 56 g N2 , and 16 g O2 , if the total pressure of the mixture is 5 atm? 4- Analysis. The analysis level requires that students separate an idea into its parts or elements and demonstrate an understanding of the relationship of the parts to the whole. Aim: To be able to separate mixtures. Question: Propose a method to separate each of the following mixtures: a) blood b) unrefined petroleum c) iron -sulphur (in powder form) mixture. 5- Synthesis. Questions on synthesis level permit students to devise ways to design experiments and test hypotheses. Students may be required to write a paper and a report in which ideas are synthesised or problems are solved. Aim: To be able to propose a method in order to find the formulas of organic compounds. Question: Describe an experiment in order to find the formulas of organic compounds. 6- Evaluation. Questions at this level require students to make judgements about the value or merits of an idea, purpose, and solution to a problem, procedure, method or product. This level requires students to use the other five levels of the taxonomy to varying degrees. Aim: To be able to explain the effects of radioactivity on human health and environment. Question: Describe the effects of radioactivity on human health and environment. Explain your answer. The questions are going to be classified according to the Bloom’s Taxonomy, it is a simple structure scales from the e easier to more difficult skills for scaffolding (Ncube, 2004). Each approach is going to be modified and operationalized to match the abilities of high school chemistry students. Types of questions Algorithmic questions an algorithmic problem is a problem where all the required data are provided, the method(s) of solution are known and the goal is clearly stated (Reid and Yang, 2002). This type of problem does not really test the student’s problem solving ability but focuses on their ability to apply knowledge in a regular way. According to Frank et al. (1987), algorithmic problems are useful for providing shortcuts for exercises. However, the disadvantage of them is that they hinder understanding when students face a real problem. Other researchers such as Nurrenbern and Pickering (1987) also claim that the use of algorithmic problems discourages the growth of conceptual understanding among students. Frank et al. (1987) added that if the initial response from the student is to choose which algorithms to use, it signifies that the student does not solve the problem at all. The students are supposed to be equipped with strong conceptual understanding of chemistry, to prepare them to minimise rote learning (memorising). Open- ended question From a chemistry education point of view, the open-ended type of question is very useful for assessing whether the students have clearly grasped a certain chemical concept (SQA, 2010). This type of question will normally require the students to draw on their understanding of the related key principals in solving the chemistry problem. The “open-ended” nature of the questions indicates that there is no unique correct answer. The advantage of using open-ended questions is that they encourage and reward creativity and analytical thinking among students. According to SQA (2010), the role of open-ended questions is to assess the key underlying concepts of chemistry, not to promote the recall of certain facts. This means that the students will not be hindered from answering the questions if they fail to recall a piece of information because there are always several alternative routes by which to reach the final solution. Modified Bloom’s taxonomy. Bloom’s taxonomy categorizes question difficulty by the cognitive process needed to solve a problem. The taxonomy was modified to define the levels by scientific processes. In addition, the top two tiers of the taxonomy, evaluating and synthesis, have been removed. The definition of each of the modified levels, examples of exam questions representing each level, and the reasoning for the classification follow (Bauis, 2016). Recall questions, comprehension questions, application questions and analysis questions E-LAERNING WITH BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Bloom’s taxonomy level of organization helps the learner to understand what is being taught in the lesson. That is, in order to reach the high level of learning in those self-directed e-learning environments, the interaction between them and the tools should be provided, which indicates learners’ experiences in using online resources (Hirumi, 2006). Chemistry learners requires tools which enable them to acquire knowledge by themselves. This will help them to be practical fit not in the exam only but also in the environment which they live. E-LEARNING WITH PRACTICALS Diffusion of innovation, uses the work of (Rogers 2003) to frame how innovative ideas are embedded in practice: stage 1: knowledge; the individual learns about the innovation and seeks information about. stage 2: persussion; the individual evaluates the innovation and begins to develop a positive or negative attitude. stage 3; decision; the individual decides to adopt or reject the innovation. stage 4: implementation; the individual puts the innovation into practice, possibly with some modification, yet some uncertainty remains. stage 5: confirmation; the individual looks for support for his or her decision. At this stage, the individual may decide to discontinue the innovation, either by replacement (adopting a better innovation) or by disenchantment, because the innovation does not meet the individual’s needs (articlelanding, 2019). Pre-learning practices and online prelaboratry resources have been implemented in laboratory courses through various instructional approaches. Interview, observation, and documents were applied so as to provide a detailed perspective of the course and the phenomenon (Secil T., Kursat C., Engin K.,2020). QUALITY OF EDUCATION PRODUCED BY E-LEARNING For education, there are different customers, who include parents, government, students, employers, and institutions of higher learning, who all look for different characteristics of quality. The different customers do not only have different expectations of the education provided, but these expectations also change with time, making the quality of education a moving target . Learner’s and. (Ncube, J., 2004). are becoming more aware of what is good for their education as well as what they want to be in life. If there is quality of chemistry production then there is better products of chemists in the future.(Grisay and Mahlck 1991:5) further say the notion of quality of education should also take into account such determinants as provision of teachers, buildings, curriculum, equipment, textbooks, and the teaching process. They opt for a three dimensional composition of the quality of education comprising the quality of human and material resources available for teaching (inputs), the quality of teaching practices (process) and the quality of results (outputs and outcomes)(Ncube, J., 2004). There should be teacher empowerment as well the learner empowerment in order to improve the skills of the learners in practicals. The learner should be able to acquire skill and values relevant to the environmental needs and conditions. Teachers and students work together and jointly plan and measure the success of projects. (Cotton 2001:13) explains that this approach has resulted in students contributing to their own enhanced improved performance. QUALITY OF EDUCATION PRODUCED BY BLOOM’S TAXONOMY The principles of constructivism are that teaching should be student centered, students learn by interacting with the physical world, teaching should emphasize the process of learning, and teaching should recognize and accept the individual differences in learning (Santrock, 2004)). Students build their knowledge through personal experiences and interactions with others in the scientific community (Garnett et al., 1995). CONDITIONS FOR EXELLENCE IN CHEMISTRY. The learners are expected to be more interpreted in the subject that they are studying. Pre-electronics provides different opportunities to make learning more fun and enjoyable in terms of teaching and learning in new ways (webanywhere, 2016). This improves engagement of learners. it also improves knowledge retention (webanywhere, 2016). It also encourages individual learning. This is because no one learns in the same way because of different abilities. It also encourages collaboration of skills by engaging into the online practical. They can learn chemistry related life skills. Having virtual learning environment in schools enhances collaboration and knowledge sharing between teachers (webanywhere, 2016) CONCLUSION This chapter was looking at the in line with how, why and what are the reasons associated with research in question. several theories and authors where used as a guide line for the researcher to have an idea of what she has to do in the research.
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