bio questions


please answer theses questions and label each one    use the attached file to answer  1.Discuss the evolutionary implications of the charts and how it could result in speciation. Arrows mean activate, a “T” means to inhibit- so these diagrams are for  epistatic interactions. 2.Much ado was made about the various hetero- terms (heterometery etc.) What could be the molecular underpinnings of these types of changes? Discuss. There are a ton of possiblilites. 3.Why is polyploidy such a major driver of plant evolution? There is more than just one answer. Discuss. 4.Why would the Western spotted skunk breed in late summer and the Eastern spotted skunk in the late winter? Why the temporal dissociation? How would this result in speciation?Discuss. 5.Let’s say you have a small population that has been isolated from the main population. Alleles have become fixed and they work like this: Long legged, Short Legged, Hide, Run. Obviously legs are coupled and behavior are coupled (different versions of the same allele.) This given population, in a short grass environment that they were isolated in could be fixed due to selection and small population size as well as random loss of alleles. Discuss which allele pairing would be most adapted to a short gras environment or a long grass environment. Given that only one set will become fixed, disucc how selection might continue to act on just those fixed alleles. 6.Who does allopatry?-The question here is if a mountain range is formed. What types of organisms will allopatrically speciate? Which ones will possibly not? Why? 7.Molecular mechanisms-Heterometry, heterochrony and heterotopy are ways to get radical phenotypic change. What molecular mechanisms could induce there regulatory changes? Apply chapter 17 content. 8.Sympatric speciation-Insects can switch host plants. Plants can undergo sympatric speciation. Discuss how insects and plants can undergo sympatric speciation and what barriers to host shifting a plant can create in lieu of the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. 9.Hybrid frogs-Rana ridibunda, a frog, inhabits rivers and overwinters in water.  Rana lessonae inhabits marshes and ponds and overwinters on land. When they hybridize they form the species Rana esculenta. Rana esculenta has the ability to occupy rivers, marhses, ponds and overwinter in water or on land. Female esculenta if the mother was a ridibunda  can discard the lessonae genome and reconstitute the parent species. Female esculenta with a maternal lessonae genome can discard the ridibunda genome and reconstitute the lessonae species. This scenario is actually more complex than this, but the question is: How is this hybrid complex adaptive for the original parent species?

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