Final Exam- Intro. To Logic

1. What does Logic study?

2.  What is the difference between an argument and a non-argument?

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3. What is so special about statements, in contrast to other kinds of expressions?

4. Describe the standard of truth on which both categorical and propositional logic rest.

5. What is a category?

6. Name the two main branches of logic.

7. Describe the fundamental principle of each branch of logic.

8. Give an example of an argument that is deductive, and one that is inductive.

9.  Define the concept of ‘validity.’  What kinds of arguments are valid or invalid?

10. Define the concept of ‘strength.’  What kinds of arguments are either strong or weak?

11. Define ‘Soundness’ and ‘Cogency.’

12. Why is it possible to have a valid argument with false premises?

13. List the four standard form categorical propositions.

14. Draw the Venn Diagrams for each of the four standard form categorical propositions.

15. Here are two categorical propositions.    A: No A are B        O: Some A are not B.

On the Aristotelian standpoint, are these two propositions consistent?   On the Boolean standpoint, are these two propositions consistent?

16.  Here is a statement in Propositional Logic.  Construct a truth table to show all the possible truth values this statement can have.

If (A or not B) then B.     (Remember to write this out using the symbolism for the logical connectors because I am unable to do it here.)

17. Here is an argument in Propositional Logic.  Construct a truth table to test for validity.

If juvenile killers are as responsible for their crimes as adults, then execution is a justifiable punishment.

Juvenile killers are not as responsible for their crimes as adults.

Therefore execution is not a justifiable punishment.

Symbolize the argument on a single line, and construct the truth table.  (Note, it should be symbolized like this, but with the connector symbols:  If J then E/ not J // not E.

18. Suppose you have a statement in Propositional Logic where all of the truth values under the main operator are true, what kind of statement is it?

19. Suppose you have a statement in Propositional Logic where all the truth values under the main operator are false, then what kind of statement is it?

20. Suppose you have a statement where all the truth values under the main operator are a mix of Ts and Fs, what kind of statement is it?

21. Suppose you have two statements to compare, and they have the same truth value on every line, then what is their relation?

22. Suppose you have two statements and they have opposite truth values on every line.  What is their relation?

23.  Here is an argument in Propositional Logic.  Use the Indirect Proof method of truth table to test for validity.  Remember to make an initial assumption.

If  not A then (B or C) / not B // If C then A.   (Again, remember to write this argument out using the symbols for the logical connectors.)

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