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For several decades, “globalization” has been a popular buzzword in the media and in scholarly research. One way to define it might be: the widening, deepening, and speeding up of worldwide interconnections in all aspects of contemporary social life, from the cultural, to the political, to the criminal, to the economic, to the spiritual, and so on. Scholars within the theoretical traditions we have examined may ask different questions about globalization: • Realism: How does it affect the international balance of power? • Liberalism: In what ways does it advance the growth and development of international institutions? • Economic Structuralism: How does it affect the global economic exploitation of the periphery by the core? • Constructivism: To what extent is it influencing the emergence and diffusion of new international norms, interests, and identities? • Feminism: In what ways is it affecting global patriarchies and masculine power structures? Thomas P.M. Barnett examined globalization in the post-9/11 world, and he seemed to find a connection between patterns of globalization and US military interventions. For this Discussion: 1. Watch the 2005 video : “The Pentagon’s New Map,” which is an interview on the Conversations with History, series from the University of California, Berkeley. (Links to an external site.) Eduardo Ig. Wrote Thomas P. M. Barnett is a strategic planner who has owned and operated a consulting practice and worked in U.S. national security since the end of the Cold War. After serving in the U.S. Department of the Navy’s Center for Naval Analyses, Barnett took a position as senior researcher and professor at the Naval War College in Newport, RI. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Barnett began serving as the assistant for strategic futures in the Office of Force Transformation within the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In that capacity, Barnett developed a famous PowerPoint brief addressing globalization and international security that later morphed into The Pentagon’s New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century, which appeared on The New York Times Best Seller list in 2004. In his interview with Harry Kreisler, Barnett discussed the results of his research on globalization and U.S. military interventions. Briefly put, he found that of the nearly 150 responses to crises that he examined, including some wars that the United States had fought since the end of the Cold War, the regions involved collectively were the least connected to the global economy. In view of that finding, Barnett asserted, “What we were looking at was the limits of the spread of globalization.” Barnett maintains that where globalization has not extended itself is where the connectivity of the global economy has not generated stability, development, growth, peace, clear-cut rules, or democracies. As home to the world’s most disconnected people, those regions unsurprisingly nurture most of the world’s terrorists. In response, Barnett’s geostrategic proposal is for the United States to “export security” in a bid to close that gap and thereby integrate those regions with the global core—that is, the stable governments of the Western world. Barnett also describes what he sees as a bifurcated U.S. military force: on the one hand, a leviathan force for war, and on the other, the so-called “system administrator,” or “sys-admin,” for peace. Barnett’s conclusion can be summarized in terms of the assumptions and concepts of liberalism. He believes that if guided to integrate non-integrated regions into the global core, globalization transform those countries into Western-style democracies and, in turn, alleviate political repression, poverty, disease, mass murder, and conflict. Neoliberal thinkers have reached a similar conclusion, one that promotes international cooperation and interdependence via trade and development. From a liberal perspective, globalization binds the world more closely together economically, politically, culturally, and socially, and that interdependence among actors modifies behavior, as long as cooperation is perceived as being beneficial. As less-developed states enjoy the economic benefits of globalization and begin to share the wealth and prosperity associated with it, they will increasingly lose interest in waging war with one another. For evidence, Barnett presents the lack of connectivity between marginal regions and the global core. By circumscribing 95% of the areas that have experienced conflict, he observed that they were all the least connected to the global economy. If Barnett’s evidence is accurate, and if the least connected states are the least prone to democracy and stability, as liberal theory would have it, then globalization, economic interdependence, and the spread of democracy are key to world peace, especially considering the democratic peace theory—namely, that democratic states are inherently more peaceful than authoritarian ones. Using a liberal theoretical approach to evaluate Barnett’s analysis on globalization and the integration of marginal regions to the core suggests what he would argue for such a strategy and the exportation of the U.S. military to secure the integration of those regions. Just as Barnet claims that economic growth effects stability, liberalism perceives power struggles overridden by economic or political considerations, if not both, and a desire for prosperity. According to liberal thought, the principal instruments used to achieve that goal are also those advocated by Barnett: the promotion of democracy, economic exchange, and international institutions that set a standard of rules to follow. Such efforts are predicted to spur cooperation, foster free markets, and increase the spread of international institutions. On paper, liberal theory and Barnett’s proposal make sense. However, liberal ideology necessarily represents Western values, and Barnett may have failed to take into account cultural and social differences regarding why marginal regions and states have remained outside the core. For example, one reason for Islamic terrorism and the rise of Osama bin Laden was to combat the influence of Western culture, which Muslim terrorists argued was penetrating into Muslim-majority countries as a result of globalization. In addition, Barnett’s proposition to export security into those regions could incite resentment within local populations and the belief among other states that the United States is on a worldwide imperialist quest for its own gain. Answer: Your replies can agree or disagree with the other views. Disagreement is good, as long as proper courtesy and respect are maintained. Initial Essays should be about 500 words, single-spaced with an extra line between paragraphs. Remember, a well-written essay should include a brief introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion. BRETT PA. Wrote: When listening to Barnett’s question and answer session over the military and globalization, I immediately thought of liberalism. Both state and non-state actors are important to liberalism and in Barnett’s explanation of how, why and where globalism has taken hold. Interconnectedness and increased interdependence creates mutually beneficial relationships and helps establish new behavioral norms and rulesets. These relationships (globalization) foster peace, spread democracy and reduce military crises. Core (globalized) states according to Barnette experience much less conflict than the more disconnected developing world. There are four major factors needed to spread globalization: security, energy, people and foreign direct investment, all of which must be exported to countries in need. Multinational corporations, the WTO, the UN and a host of other agencies are major actors in support of bringing connectedness (as per Barnett’s explanation) to historically conflictual areas of the world. Repeated crisis interventions are not what is going to help the developing world develop, paving the way for the flow of people, capital, communication and the like will. Communism, socialism and fascism are staunch barriers to globalization and ones that as globalization spreads will hopefully become less appealing to countries seeking to join the developed world. The more interconnected the world gets, the more countries have to lose by isolating themselves from the global economy and from reaping the benefits that may come with it. I tend to agree with Barnett’s explanation of globalism and where it is headed in the world. The liberal lens makes it easy to digest and supports many of the arguments from Barnett. One of the last things in the video was Barnett saying that:” globalization comes with rules, not a ruler.” This to me is a wonderful way of conceptualizing that in the international system there is more happening than simply security based doings. Countries acting rationally can and do cooperate in complex relationships that span all manners of trade, security, environmental issues and business. These relationships help create a global economy, a positive sum game for states who abide by internationally established rules. Domestic policies and decisions that influence how a country is able to connect with the greater world matter in Barnett’s explanation, just as they do in traditional liberal theory. Humans, being able to learn and adapt can look at other countries and see that they may be missing out on great opportunities because the form of government they support, or that their domestic policies are isolating them from a world of opportunities. Countries (like China) have a lot to gain by joining the larger globalized communities, which they have been doing across the world. Being connected in so many domains could help China emerge as an alley based on a mutually supporting relationship, and not as an enemy. There is now an obligation to help buildup countries that may have just experienced major conflict. This support and bringing them into the fold of globalization allows for greater stability and provides another country and their resources to the larger connected world. It also decreases the chance of future conflicts (like the United States in Iraq multiple times) and helps the spread of democracy. War needs to help advance social, economic and environmental concerns in order to further globalization for the betterment of the world. Using liberal ideals to make interactions between states more than just security and state based makes increasing sense in an increasingly globalized world. Answer: Your replies can agree or disagree with the other views. Disagreement is good, as long as proper courtesy and respect are maintained. Initial Essays should be about 500 words, single-spaced with an extra line between paragraphs. Remember, a well-written essay should include a brief introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.

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